Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Giving fruit a nutritional boost

Blue tomatoes, pink bananas and red-fleshed apples. Meet the next generation of healthy fruits.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1: Scarlet to the core.


Figure 2: Taste tester.


Figure 3: Gold standard.



  1. 1

    Forte, A. V., Ignatov, A. N., Ponomarenko, V. V., Dorokhov, D. B. & Savelyev, N. I. Russ. J. Genet. 38, 1150–1160 (2002).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Harris, S. A., Robinson, J. P. & Juniper, B. E. Trends Genet. 18, 426–430 (2002).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    Reiss, M. Apple (Reaktion Books, 2014).

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    Velasco, R. et al. Nat. Genet. 42, 833–839 (2010).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Wolfe, J. & Wehr, W. J. A. Aliso 12, 177–200 (1988).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    Xiang, Y. et al. Mol. Biol. Evol. (2016).

  7. 7

    Forsline, P. L. & Aldwinckle, H. S. Acta Hort. 663, 529–534 (2004).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    Podsędek, A. et al. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 210, 268–272 (2000).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    Łata, B., Przeradzka, M. & Bińkowska, M. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53, 8970–8978 (2005).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    Volk, G. M. & Henk, A. D. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 141, 292–301 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    NFC Dataset (accessed 7 November 2016);

  12. 12

    Donald, D. R. in Breeding for Fruit Quality (eds Jenks, M. A. & Bebeli, P. J. ) 127–150 (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011).

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    Espley, R. V. et al. Plant Biotechnol. J. 11, 408–419 (2013).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14

    Espley, R. V. et al. J. Nutr. 144, 146–154.

  15. 15

    Micronutrient Deficiencies (WHO, 2016);

  16. 16

    Hefferon, K. L. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 16, 3895–3914 (2015).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Karl Gruber.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Gruber, K. Giving fruit a nutritional boost. Nature Plants 2, 16191 (2016).

Download citation

Further reading


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing