Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Floral development: Lip formation in orchids unravelled

Most orchid flowers have an enlarged median petal, the ‘lip’, which plays a crucial role in attracting pollinators. The existence and appearance of this organ is due to the presence of specific protein complexes involved in floral development, which are differentially expressed in orchid species with more or less pronounced lips.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1: Flower of Ophrys splendida with Andrena male.

© JEAN CLAESSENS

References

  1. 1

    Hsu, H. F. et al. Nature Plants 1, 15046 (2015).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Ramírez, S. R. et al. Nature 448, 1042–1045 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    Coen, E. S. & Meyerowitz, E. M. . Nature 353, 31–37 (1991)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    Theissen, G. & Saedler, H. Nature 409, 469–471 (2001)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Darwin, C. On the Various Contrivances by which Orchids are Fertilised by Insects 2nd edn (Murray, 1877).

  6. 6

    Cozzoline, S. & Widmer, A. Trends Ecol. Evol. 20, 487–494 (2005).

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Barbara Gravendeel.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Gravendeel, B., Dirks-Mulder, A. Floral development: Lip formation in orchids unravelled. Nature Plants 1, 15056 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1038/nplants.2015.56

Download citation

Further reading

Search

Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing