Table 4 Regression analyses with three different dependent variables, having an exacerbation, total CCQ score, FEV1 predicted, 10–17 months after baseline (n=346)

From: Morning and night symptoms in primary care COPD patients: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study. An UNLOCK study from the IPCRG

PredictorRisk factorOR95% CIP value
Dependent variable: having an exacerbation, 10–17 months after baseline visit (n=346)
 Baseline exacerbationNo1  
 Yes4.132.45-6.95<0.000
 Morning symptoms (ACQ question 2)No (ACQ=0)1  
 Moderate (ACQ:1–3)1.240.60-2.56NS
 Severe (ACQ4)1.580.76-3.28NS
 Night symptoms (ACQ question 1)No (ACQ=0)1  
 Moderate (ACQ:1–3)1.941.02-3.690.044
 Severe (ACQ4)1.270.52-3.09NS
Dependent variable: total CCQascore1, 10–17 months after baseline visit (n=345)
 Baseline total CCQ scoreLow symptomatic (CCQ<1)1  
 High symptomatic (CCQ1)6.483.66-11.46<0.000
 Morning symptoms (ACQ question 2)No (ACQ=0)1  
 Moderate (ACQ:1–3)2.751.33-5.700.006
 Severe (ACQ4)12.224.76-31.39<0.000
 Night symptoms (ACQ question 1)No (ACQ=0)1  
 Moderate (ACQ:1–3)1.991.01-3.910.047
 Severe (ACQ4)2.630.81-8.56NS
PredictorBs.e.tP value
Dependent variable: FEV1% predicted, 10–17 months after baseline visit (n=345)
 Constant7.452.443.060.002
 Baseline FEV1% predicted0.900.0328.76<0.000
 Morning symptoms (ACQ question 2)−0.010.63−0.01NS
 Night symptoms (ACQ question 1)−0.750.52−1.43NS
  1. Abbreviations: ACQ, Asthma Control Questionnaire; CI, confidence interval; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s; CCQ, COPD Clinical Questionnaire; NS, not significant; OR, odds ratio.
  2. aClinical COPD Questionnaire.