Abstract

We describe a new technique for the efficient generation of high-energy ions with electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in multi-ion plasmas. The discussed ‘three-ion’ scenarios are especially suited for strong wave absorption by a very low number of resonant ions. To observe this effect, the plasma composition has to be properly adjusted, as prescribed by theory. We demonstrate the potential of the method on the world-largest plasma magnetic confinement device, JET (Joint European Torus, Culham, UK), and the high-magnetic-field tokamak Alcator C-Mod (Cambridge, USA). The obtained results demonstrate efficient acceleration of 3He ions to high energies in dedicated hydrogen–deuterium mixtures. Simultaneously, effective plasma heating is observed, as a result of the slowing-down of the fast 3He ions. The developed technique is not only limited to laboratory plasmas, but can also be applied to explain observations of energetic ions in space-plasma environments, in particular, 3He-rich solar flares.

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Acknowledgements

This paper is dedicated to the late P. E. M. Vandenplas, founder and first director of LPP-ERM/KMS, in recognition of his lifelong outstanding commitment to fusion research, in particular to ICRH. The support from the JET and Alcator C-Mod Teams is warmly acknowledged. We are grateful to A. Cardinali, C. Castaldo, R. Dumont, J. Eriksson, T. Fülöp, C. Giroud, C. Hellesen, S. Menmuir and M. Schneider for fruitful discussions. This work has been carried out within the framework of the EUROfusion Consortium and has received funding from the Euratom research and training programme 2014–2018 under grant agreement no. 633053. The views and opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect those of the European Commission. This work was also supported by the US DoE, Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, SciDAC Center for Simulation of Wave Plasma Interactions under DE-FC02-01ER54648 and the User Facility Alcator C-Mod under DE-FC02-99ER54512. The Alcator C-Mod Team author list is reproduced from ref. 12. The JET Contributors author list is reproduced from ref. 33.

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Laboratory for Plasma Physics, LPP-ERM/KMS, TEC Partner, 1000 Brussels, Belgium

    • Ye. O. Kazakov
    • , J. Ongena
    • , E. Lerche
    • , D. Van Eester
    • , K. Crombé
    •  & M. Van Schoor
  2. Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA

    • J. C. Wright
    • , S. J. Wukitch
    • , Y. Lin
    • , T. Golfinopoulos
    • , A. E. Hubbard
    •  & M. Porkolab
  3. Culham Centre for Fusion Energy (CCFE), Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB, UK

    • E. Lerche
    • , V. G. Kiptily
    • , Y. Baranov
    • , R. Felton
    • , M. Fitzgerald
    • , Ph. Jacquet
    • , S. E. Sharapov
    •  & D. Valcarcel
  4. Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC), 08034 Barcelona, Spain

    • M. J. Mantsinen
    •  & D. Gallart
  5. ICREA, Pg. Lluis Companys 23, 08010 Barcelona, Spain

    • M. J. Mantsinen
  6. National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 077126 Bucharest, Romania

    • T. Craciunescu
  7. Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicocca, 20126 Milan, Italy

    • M. Nocente
  8. Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, CNR, 20125 Milan, Italy

    • M. Nocente
    •  & L. Giacomelli
  9. Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, IST, Universdade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal

    • F. Nabais
    •  & M. F. F. Nave
  10. Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-342 Krakow, Poland

    • J. Bielecki
  11. Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching, Germany

    • R. Bilato
    •  & V. Bobkov
  12. Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, 9000 Gent, Belgium

    • K. Crombé
  13. Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, 01-497 Warsaw, Poland

    • A. Czarnecka
  14. EPFL, Swiss Plasma Center (SPC), 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland

    • J. M. Faustin
    •  & H. Weisen
  15. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 114 28 Stockholm, Sweden

    • T. Johnson
  16. European Commission, 1049 Brussels, Belgium

    • M. Lennholm
  17. JET Exploitation Unit, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB, UK

    • M. Lennholm
  18. CEA, IRFM, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance, France

    • T. Loarer
  19. Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA

    • E. S. Marmar
    • , S. G. Baek
    • , H. Barnard
    • , P. Bonoli
    • , D. Brunner
    • , G. Dekow
    • , P. Ennever
    • , I. Faust
    • , C. Fiore
    • , Chi Gao
    • , T. Golfinopoulos
    • , M. Greenwald
    • , Z. S. Hartwig
    • , A. E. Hubbard
    • , J. W. Hughes
    • , I. H. Hutchinson
    • , J. Irby
    • , B. LaBombard
    • , Yijun Lin
    • , R. Mumgaard
    • , R. R. Parker
    • , M. Porkolab
    • , J. E. Rice
    • , S. Shiraiwa
    • , B. Sorbom
    • , D. Terry
    • , J. L. Terry
    • , R. Vieira
    • , J. R. Walk
    • , G. M. Wallace
    • , A. White
    • , D. Whyte
    • , S. M. Wolfe
    • , G. M. Wright
    • , J. Wright
    • , S. J. Wukitch
    •  & P. Xu
  20. General Atomics, San Diego, California, USA

    • J. Candy
    •  & P. Snyder
  21. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA

    • J. Canik
  22. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey, USA

    • R. M. Churchill
    • , L. Delgado-Aparicio
    • , A. Diallo
    • , E. Edlund
    •  & S. Scott
  23. Center for Energy Research, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California, USA

    • I. Cziegler
    •  & C. Holland
  24. Department of Physics, University of York, York, USA

    • B. Lipschultz
    •  & M. L. Reinke
  25. Plasma Operations Directorate, ITER Organization, St. Paul lez Durance, France

    • A. Loarte
  26. TCV Tokamak Physics, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Lausanne, Switzerland.

    • C. Theiler
  27. Aalto University, PO Box 14100, FIN-00076 Aalto, Finland

    • O. Asunta
    • , M. Groth
    • , A. Järvinen
    • , J. Karhunen
    • , T. Koskela
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    • , M. I. K. Santala
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    • , J. Uljanovs
    •  & J. Varje
  28. Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Centrale Marseille, M2P2 UMR 7340, 13451 Marseille, France

    • D. Galassi
  29. Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, IUSTI UMR 7343, 13013 Marseille, France

    • J.-L. Gardarein
  30. Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, PIIM, UMR 7345, 13013 Marseille, France

    • Y. Camenen
    • , M. Koubiti
    • , P. Manas
    •  & Y. Marandet
  31. Arizona State University, Tempe, USA

    • C. Luna
  32. Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Barcelona, Spain

    • S. Futatani
    • , D. Gallart
    • , M. Mantsinen
    •  & A. Rakha
  33. CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB, UK

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  34. CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance, France

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    • , H. Bufferand
    • , G. Ciraolo
    • , F. Clairet
    • , L. Colas
    • , Y. Corre
    • , J. Denis
    • , P. Devynck
    • , D. Douai
    • , R. Dumont
    • , A. Ekedahl
    • , D. Esteve
    • , N. Fedorczak
    • , O. Février
    • , A. Fil
    • , M. Firdaouss
    • , J. Garcia
    • , E. Gauthier
    • , J. C. Giacalone
    • , C. Gil
    • , J. B. Girardo
    • , G. Giruzzi
    • , M. Goniche
    • , C. Grisolia
    • , C. Guillemaut
    • , R. Guirlet
    • , S. Hacquin
    • , W. Helou
    • , P. Hertout
    • , J. Hillairet
    • , E. Hodille
    • , P. Huynh
    • , F. Imbeaux
    • , M. Irishkin
    • , A. Jardin
    • , E. Joffrin
    • , D. Kogut
    • , M. Kresina
    • , T. Loarer
    • , P. Maget
    • , D. Mazon
    • , D. Molina
    • , E. Nardon
    • , E. Nilsson
    • , R. Nouailletas
    • , Y. Peysson
    • , C. Reux
    • , R. Sabot
    • , F. Saint-Laurent
    • , M. Schneider
    • , C. Sommariva
    • , P. Tamain
    • , M. Valentinuzzi
    • , S. Vartanian
    •  & T. Vu
  35. Center for Energy Research, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA

    • R. P. Doerner
  36. Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Xavier Sigaud, 160, Rio de Janeiro CEP 22290- 180, Brazil

    • R. Galvão
  37. Consorzio CREATE, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli, Italy

    • F. Maviglia
    •  & F. Orsitto
  38. Consorzio RFX, corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova, Italy

    • A. Alfier
    • , F. Auriemma
    • , M. Baruzzo
    • , M. Bigi
    • , T. Bolzonella
    • , M. Brombin
    • , L. Carraro
    • , R. Cavazzana
    • , M. Cavinato
    • , A. Cenedese
    • , G. Chitarin
    • , G. De Masi
    • , F. Degli Agostini
    • , P. Innocente
    • , R. Lorenzini
    • , A. Masiello
    • , O. McCormack
    • , A. Murari
    • , P. Nielsen
    • , R. Paccagnella
    • , R. Pasqualotto
    • , S. Peruzzo
    • , P. Piovesan
    • , N. Pomaro
    • , M. E. Puiatti
    • , G. Rubino
    • , V. Schmidt
    • , P. Sonato
    • , A. Sopplesa
    • , S. Spagnolo
    • , C. Taliercio
    • , L. Taroni
    • , D. Terranova
    • , M. Valisa
    • , P. Vincenzi
    •  & E. Zilli
  39. Daegu University, Jillyang, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 712-174, Republic of Korea

    • O. J. Kwon
  40. Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganés, Madrid, Spain

    • J. R. Martín-Solís
  41. Department of Applied Physics UG (Ghent University), St-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B-9000 Ghent, Belgium

    • K. Crombé
    • , G. Hornung
    • , A. Shabbir
    •  & G. Telesca
  42. Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden

    • F. Eriksson
    • , H. Nordman
    • , P. Strand
    • , D. Tegnered
    •  & D. Yadikin
  43. Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Cagliari, Piazza d’Armi 09123 Cagliari, Italy

    • B. Cannas
    • , A. Fanni
    • , A. Pau
    • , Pisano
    •  & G. Sias
  44. Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics Comenius University Mlynska dolina F2, 84248 Bratislava, Slovak Republic

    • O. Bogar
    • , S. Matejcik
    • , J. Orszagh
    • , P. Papp
    •  & F. S. Zaitsev
  45. Department of Materials Science, Warsaw University of Technology, PL-01-152 Warsaw, Poland

    • E. Fortuna-Zalesna
    •  & J. Grzonka
  46. Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 34141, Korea

    • C. Jeong
    •  & S. Kwak
  47. Department of Physics and Applied Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 ONG, UK

    • S. S. Henderson
    • , M. O’Mullane
    •  & H. P. Summers
  48. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75120 Uppsala, Sweden

    • E. Andersson Sundén
    • , F. Binda
    • , M. Cecconello
    • , S. Conroy
    • , N. Dzysiuk
    • , G. Ericsson
    • , J. Eriksson
    • , C. Hellesen
    • , A. Hjalmarsson
    • , G. Possnert
    • , H. Sjöstrand
    • , M. Skiba
    •  & M. Weiszflog
  49. Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden

    • J. Weiland
  50. Department of Physics, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ, UK

    • M. Bacharis
  51. Department of Physics, SCI, KTH, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden

    • E. Rachlew
  52. Department of Physics, University of Basel, Switzerland

    • L. Marot
    •  & L. Moser
  53. Department of Physics, University of Oxford, OX1 2JD, UK

    • M. Barnes
    • , E. G. Highcock
    •  & F. Parra Diaz
  54. Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK

    • S. C. Chapman
    •  & N. W. Watkins
  55. Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Queens University, Belfast BT7 1NN, UK

    • K. M. Aggarwal
    •  & I. Coffey
  56. Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica Elettronica e Informatica-Università degli Studi di Catania, 95125 Catania, Italy

    • P. Arena
    • , A. Buscarino
    • , C. Corradino
    • , L. Fortuna
    • , M. Frasca
    •  & S. Palazzo
  57. Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, University of Trento, Italy

    • A. Bisoffi
  58. Dublin City University (DCU), Ireland

    • H. J. Leggate
    • , D. Schwörer
    • , A. Somers
    •  & M. M. Turner
  59. Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Swiss Plasma Center (SPC), CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland

    • P. Blanchard
    • , S. Coda
    • , B. P. Duval
    • , A. Fasoli
    • , J. M. Faustin
    • , J. P. Graves
    • , S. Lanthaler
    • , Y. Martin
    • , F. Nespoli
    • , T. Nicolas
    • , H. Patten
    • , D. Pfefferlé
    • , O. Sauter
    • , D. Testa
    •  & H. Weisen
  60. EUROfusion Programme Management Unit, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching, Germany

    • L. Barrera Orte
    • , T. Donné
    • , T. Franke
    • , K. Gál
    • , C. Guérard
    • , M. L. Mayoral
    • , D. McDonald
    • , J. Regaña
    • , M. Reinhart
    • , M. Turnyanskiy
    •  & I. Voitsekhovitch
  61. EUROfusion Programme Management Unit, Culham Science Centre, Culham OX14 3DB, UK

    • N. Bekris
    • , D. Borba
    • , J. Figueiredo
    • , D. Fuller
    • , S. Hacquin
    • , S. Jachmich
    • , H. T. Kim
    • , X. Litaudon
    • , J. Lönnroth
    • , A. Murari
    • , C. Perez von Thun
    •  & E. R. Solano
  62. European Commission, B-1049 Brussels, Belgium

    • L. G. Eriksson
    • , L. D. Horton
    • , M. Lennholm
    • , C. Lowry
    • , A. Peackoc
    •  & A. C. C. Sips
  63. Fluid and Plasma Dynamics, ULB - Campus Plaine - CP 231 Boulevard du Triomphe, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium

    • S. Moradi
  64. FOM Institute DIFFER, Eindhoven, The Netherlands

    • J. Citrin
    • , N. den Harder
    • , G. M. D. Hogeweij
    • , F. Jaulmes
    • , A. Shumack
    • , M. Tsalas
    •  & G. J. van Rooij
  65. Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung - Plasmaphysik, 52425 Jülich, Germany

    • S. Abduallev
    • , M. Beckers
    • , D. Borodin
    • , I. Borodkina
    • , S. Brezinsek
    • , J. W. Coenen
    • , P. Denner
    • , T. Dittmar
    • , P. Drews
    • , H. G. Esser
    • , M. Freisinger
    • , Y. Gao
    • , F. Hasenbeck
    • , A. Huber
    • , V. Huber
    • , A. Kirschner
    • , M. Köppen
    • , H. R. Koslowski
    • , H. T. Lambertz
    • , L. Li
    • , Y. Liang
    • , J. Linke
    • , Ch. Linsmeier
    • , O. Marchuk
    • , Y. Martynova
    • , Ph. Mertens
    • , C. Perez von Thun
    • , V. Philipps
    • , G. Pintsuk
    • , M. Rack
    • , F. Reimold
    • , D. Reiser
    • , J. Romazanov
    • , U. Samm
    • , T. Schlummer
    • , G. Sergienko
    • , E. Wang
    • , N. Wang
    • , S. Wiesen
    •  & W. Yanling
  66. Fourth State Research, 503 Lockhart Dr, Austin, Texas, USA

    • R. Bravanec
  67. Fusion for Energy Joint Undertaking, Josep Pl. 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona, Spain

    • S. Arshad
    • , D. Leichtle
    • , A. Neto
    • , G. Saibene
    • , F. Sartori
    •  & R. Sartori
  68. Fusion Plasma Physics, EES, KTH, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden

    • H. Bergsåker
    • , I. Bykov
    • , L. Frassinetti
    • , A. Garcia-Carrasco
    • , T. Hellsten
    • , T. Johnson
    • , S. Menmuir
    • , P. Petersson
    • , M. Rubel
    • , E. Stefanikova
    • , P. Ström
    • , E. Tholerus
    • , P. Vallejos Olivares
    • , A. Weckmann
    •  & Y. Zhou
  69. General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608, California, USA

    • P. Gohil
    • , T. Luce
    • , S. Mordijck
    •  & C. Paz Soldan
  70. HRS Fusion, West Orange New Jersey, USA

    • H. R. Strauss
  71. IFP-CNR, via R. Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano, Italy

    • E. Alessi
    • , G. Gervasini
    • , L. Giacomelli
    • , L. Laguardia
    • , E. Lazzaro
    • , P. Mantica
    • , C. Marchetto
    • , A. Muraro
    • , C. Sozzi
    • , M. Tardocchi
    • , A. Uccello
    •  & N. Vianello
  72. Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar - 382 428 Gujarat, India

    • M. Abhangi
    • , J. Buch
    • , D. Chandra
    • , P. Dutta
    • , P. V. Edappala
    • , M. Ghate
    • , A. Kundu
    • , B. Magesh
    • , R. Makwana
    • , S. Panja
    • , S. Pathak
    • , V. Prajapati
    • , R. Prakash
    • , S. Ranjan
    • , K. Rathod
    • , P. Santa
    • , A. Sinha
    • , M. Stephen
    •  & K. Vasava
  73. Institute of Nuclear Physics, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków, Poland

    • J. Bielecki
    •  & J. Dankowski
  74. Institute of Physics, Opole University, Oleska 48, 45-052 Opole, Poland

    • I. Książek
    •  & E. Pawelec
  75. Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Hery 23, 01-497 Warsaw, Poland

    • M. Chernyshova
    • , A. Czarnecka
    • , K. Gałązka
    • , I. Ivanova-Stanik
    • , S. Jednoróg
    • , E. Kowalska-Strzęciwilk
    • , N. Krawczyk
    • , E. Łaszyńska
    • , K. Slabkowska
    • , M. Szawlowski
    •  & R. Zagorski
  76. Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Za Slovankou 1782/3, 182 00 Praha 8, Czech Republic

    • P. Bílková
    • , P. Cahyna
    • , R. Dejarnac
    • , I. Ďuran
    • , O. Ficker
    • , V. Fuchs
    • , J. Horáček
    • , M. Imríšek
    • , T. Markovič
    • , J. Mlynář
    • , R. Paprok
    • , M. Peterka
    • , V. Petržilka
    • , M. Tomeš
    •  & P. Vondráček
  77. Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, China

    • B. Ding
    • , X. Gao
    •  & Y. Liu
  78. Instituto de Física - Universidade de São Paulo Rua do Matão Travessa R Nr.187 CEP 05508- 090 Cidade Universitária, São Paulo, Brasil

    • A. Pires dos Reis
    • , P. Puglia
    • , L. Ruchko
    •  & W. W. Pires de Sa
  79. Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal

    • P. Abreu
    • , E. Alves
    • , D. Baião
    • , A. Batista
    • , J. Bernardo
    • , J. P. S. Bizarro
    • , D. Borba
    • , B. B. Carvalho
    • , I. Carvalho
    • , P. Carvalho
    • , N. Catarino
    • , R. Coelho
    • , S. Cortes
    • , N. Cruz
    • , L. Fazendeiro
    • , A. Fernades
    • , H. Fernandes
    • , J. Ferreira
    • , A. Figueiredo
    • , J. Figueiredo
    • , L. Gil
    • , R. Gomes
    • , B. Gonçalves
    • , C. Guillemaut
    • , R. Henriques
    • , A. Malaquias
    • , M. E. Manso
    • , L. Meneses
    • , F. Nabais
    • , M. F. F. Nave
    • , I. Nedzelski
    • , I. Nunes
    • , R. Pereira
    • , V. Plyusnin
    • , S. D. A. Reyes Cortes
    • , P. Rodrigues
    • , F. Salzedas
    • , B. Santos
    • , A. Silva
    • , C. Silva
    • , J. Sousa
    •  & J. Vicente
  80. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, 26 Politekhnicheskaya, St Petersburg 194021, Russian Federation

    • D. Gin
    • , E. Khilkevich
    • , A. Shevelev
    •  & N. Teplova
  81. ITER Organization, Route de Vinon, CS 90 046, 13067 Saint Paul Lez Durance, France

    • P. Aleynikov
    • , R. Barnsley
    • , M. Bassan
    • , B. Bauvir
    • , L. Bertalot
    • , E. Bruno
    • , W. Davis
    • , M. De Bock
    • , G. De Temmerman
    • , P. de Vries
    • , F. Di Maio
    • , Ph. Duckworth
    • , M. Henderson
    • , G. T. A. Huijsmans
    • , M. Lehnen
    • , F. Leipold
    • , G. Liu
    • , A. Loarte
    • , Ph. Maquet
    • , S. Maruyama
    • , R. Michling
    • , C. Penot
    • , R. Pitts
    • , R. Roccella
    • , A. Sirinelli
    • , P. Thomas
    • , E. Veshchev
    • , M. Walsh
    •  & C. Watts
  82. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, PO Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany

    • B. Bazylev
    • , F. Bonelli
    • , C. Day
    • , U. Fischer
    • , T. Giegerich
    • , A. Klix
    • , S. Peschanyi
    •  & S. Varoutis
  83. Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, CIEMAT, Madrid, Spain

    • A. Baciero
    • , I. Calvo
    • , A. de Castro
    • , E. de la Cal
    • , E. de la Luna
    • , J. L. de Pablos
    • , J. M. Fontdecaba
    • , C. Hidalgo
    • , J. López-Razola
    • , U. Losada
    • , A. Martín de Aguilera
    • , F. Medina
    • , R. Moreno
    • , A. Pereira
    • , G. Rattá
    • , E. R. Solano
    •  & J. Vega
  84. Laboratory for Plasma Physics Koninklijke Militaire School - Ecole Royale Militaire Renaissancelaan 30 Avenue de la Renaissance B-1000, Brussels, Belgium

    • P. Dumortier
    • , F. Durodié
    • , S. Jachmich
    • , Y. Kazakov
    • , A. Krivska
    • , E. Lerche
    • , A. Lyssoivan
    • , A. Messiaen
    • , J. Ongena
    • , R. Ragona
    • , I. Stepanov
    • , M. Tripsky
    • , D. Van Eester
    • , G. Verdoolaege
    •  & T. Wauters
  85. Lithuanian energy institute, Breslaujos g. 3, LT-44403 Kaunas, Lithuania

    • G. Stankūnas
  86. Magnetic Sensor Laboratory, Lviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv, Ukraine

    • I. Bolshakova
  87. Maritime University of Szczecin, Waly Chrobrego 1-2, 70-500 Szczecin, Poland

    • B. Bieg
  88. Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching, Germany

    • C. Angioni
    • , M. Balden
    • , É. Belonohy
    • , M. Bernert
    • , V. Bobkov
    • , J. Boom
    • , A. Burckhart
    • , D. Carralero
    • , A. Chankin
    • , D. Coster
    • , S. Devaux
    • , A. Di Siena
    • , R. D’Inca
    • , H. Doerk
    • , A. Drenik
    • , M. Dunne
    • , R. Dux
    • , Th. Eich
    • , M. Faitsch
    • , S. Fietz
    • , K. Gál
    • , B. Geiger
    • , S. Glöggler
    • , H. Greuner
    • , J. Hobirk
    • , A. Kallenbach
    • , A. Kappatou
    • , K. Krieger
    • , P. T. Lang
    • , H. Maier
    • , M. Mayer
    • , G. Meisl
    • , F. Mink
    • , R. Neu
    • , M. Oberkofler
    • , S. Potzel
    • , Th. Pütterich
    • , C. J. Rapson
    • , M. Reich
    • , V. Rohde
    • , K. Schmid
    • , M. Sertoli
    • , B. Sieglin
    • , E. Viezzer
    • , M. Wischmeier
    •  & W. Zhang
  89. Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Teilinsitut Greifswald, D-17491 Greifswald, Germany

    • M. Beurskens
    • , P. Drewelow
    •  & J. Svensson
  90. MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Centre, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, Massachusetts, USA

    • V. Aslanyan
    • , A. Hubbard
    • , J. C. Wright
    •  & S. Wukitch
  91. National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), 05-400 Otwock-Świerk, Poland

    • A. Brosławski
    • , M. Gosk
    • , R. Kwiatkowski
    • , S. Mianowski
    • , J. Rzadkiewicz
    • , Ł. Świderski
    •  & I. Zychor
  92. National Fusion Research Institute(NFRI) 169-148 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806, Republic of Korea

    • S. Lee
    •  & M. Park
  93. National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292, Japan

    • M. Tokitani
  94. National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292, Japan

    • N. Ashikawa
  95. National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Naka, Ibaraki 311- 0193, Japan

    • N. Aiba
    • , H. H. Utoh
    • , N. Imazawa
    • , K. K. Hoshino
    • , K. Kamiya
    • , T. Kobuchi
    • , Y. Miyoshi
    • , N. N. Asakura
    • , T. Nakano
    • , M. T. Ogawa
    • , T. T. Suzuki
    • , H. Tojo
    •  & H. Urano
  96. National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Politechniou 9, 157 73 Zografou Athens, Greece

    • K. Hizanidis
    • , V. Kazantzidis
    • , Y. Kominis
    •  & A. Lazaros
  97. NCSR “Demokritos” 153 10, Agia Paraskevi Attikis, Greece

    • K. Mergia
    • , I. Stamatelatos
    • , P. Tsavalas
    •  & T. Vasilopoulou
  98. NRC Kurchatov Institute, 1 Kurchatov Square, Moscow 123182, Russian Federation

    • A. Alkseev
    • , A. Kukushkin
    •  & V. S. Neverov
  99. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6169, Tennessee, USA

    • L. Baylor
    • , T. Biewer
    • , E. Delabie
    • , R. Grove
    • , D. Hillis
    • , M. Kaufman
    • , C. Klepper
    • , S. Meitner
    • , S. Mosher
    • , M. Parsons
    • , M. Reinke
    •  & J. Risner
  100. PELIN LLC, 27a, Gzhatskaya Ulitsa, Saint Petersburg 195220, Russian Federation

    • A. Lukin
    •  & I. Vinyar
  101. Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Torino, Italy

    • F. Subba
    •  & R. Zanino
  102. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, James Forrestal Campus, Princeton, New Jersey 08543, New Jersey, USA

    • R. Budny
    • , E. Cecil
    • , C. S. Chang
    • , D. Darrow
    • , W. Davis
    • , R. Goulding
    • , B. Grierson
    • , R. Hager
    • , M. Okabayashi
    • , S. D. Scott
    • , J. Strachan
    •  & W. Tang
  103. Purdue University, 610 Purdue Mall, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA

    • G. Miloshevsky
  104. SCK-CEN, Nuclear Research Centre, 2400 Mol, Belgium

    • W. Broeckx
    • , K. Dylst
    • , A. Goussarov
    • , W. Leysen
    • , I. Uytdenhouwen
    •  & W. Van Renterghem
  105. Second University of Napoli, Consorzio CREATE, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli, Italy

    • A. Formisano
    • , M. Mattei
    •  & F. Pizzo
  106. Seoul National University, Shilim-Dong, Gwanak-Gu, Republic of Korea

    • H. S. Kim
    • , Y. S. Na
    •  & M. G. Yoo
  107. Slovenian Fusion Association (SFA), Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia

    • A. Cufar
    • , A. Drenik
    • , I. Kodeli
    • , B. Kos
    • , I. Lengar
    •  & L. Snoj
  108. Space and Plasma Physics, EES, KTH SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden

    • S. Ratynskaia
    •  & P. Tolias
  109. Technical University of Denmark, Department of Physics, Bldg 309, DK-2800 Kgs Lyngby, Denmark

    • A. S. Jacobsen
    • , F. Leipold
    • , V. Naulin
    • , A. H. Nielsen
    • , J. J. Rasmussen
    • , M. Salewski
    •  & A. S. Thrysøe
  110. The “Horia Hulubei” National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Magurele- Bucharest, Romania

    • M. Enachescu
    • , A. Petre
    •  & C. Stan-Sion
  111. The National Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technology, Ramnicu Valcea, Romania

    • M. Anghel
    • , M. Curuia
    •  & S. Soare
  112. The National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Magurele-Bucharest, Romania

    • T. Craciunescu
    • , P. Dinca
    • , D. Falie
    • , M. Gherendi
    • , I. Jepu
    • , C. P. Lungu
    • , M. Lungu
    • , O. G. Pompilian
    • , C. Porosnicu
    • , C. Ruset
    • , F. Spineanu
    • , I. Tiseanu
    • , M. Vlad
    •  & V. Zoita
  113. The National Institute for Optoelectronics, Magurele-Bucharest, Romania

    • V. Braic
  114. Troitsk Insitute of Innovating and Thermonuclear Research (TRINITI), Troitsk 142190, Moscow Region, Russian Federation

    • V. Amosov
    • , A. Krasilnikov
    • , V. Krasilnikov
    • , N. Marcenko
    • , S. Meshchaninov
    • , G. Nemtsev
    •  & R. Rodionov
  115. Uni of Electronic Science & Tech of China, China

    • J. Wu
    •  & L. Yao
  116. Unità Tecnica Fusione - ENEA C. R. Frascati - via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Roma), Italy

    • L. Amicucci
    • , M. Angelone
    • , P. Batistoni
    • , F. Belli
    • , A. Botrugno
    • , P. Buratti
    • , G. Calabrò
    • , A. Cardinali
    • , C. Castaldo
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    • , R. Cesario
    • , V. Cocilovo
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    • , D. Flammini
    • , N. Fonnesu
    • , D. Frigione
    • , E. Giovannozzi
    • , M. Marinucci
    • , D. Marocco
    • , C. Mazzotta
    • , F. Moro
    • , D. Pacella
    • , M. Pillon
    • , M. T. Porfiri
    • , G. Pucella
    • , G. Ramogida
    • , G. Ravera
    • , M. Riva
    • , F. Romanelli
    • , A. Santucci
    • , S. Villari
    • , B. Viola
    •  & M. Zerbini
  117. Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain

    • A. Manzanares
  118. Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain

    • J. Galdon-Quiroga
    • , M. García-Muñoz
    •  & E. Viezzer
  119. Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Madrid, Spain

    • D. Alegre
    • , S. Dormido-Canto
    •  & F. J. Martínez
  120. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Grupo I2A2 Madrid, Spain

    • S. Esquembri
    • , J. M. López
    •  & M. Ruiz
  121. Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, Roma, Italy

    • P. Gaudio
    • , M. Gelfusa
    • , M. Lungaroni
    • , A. Malizia
    • , M. Marinelli
    • , E. Peluso
    • , G. Prestopino
    • , S. Talebzadeh
    • , C. Verona
    •  & G. Verona Rinati
  122. University College Cork (UCC), Ireland

    • S. Knott
    •  & P. J. McCarthy
  123. University Milano-Bicocca, piazza della Scienza 3, 20126 Milano, Italy

    • N. Bonanomi
    • , G. Croci
    • , G. Gorini
    • , M. Nocente
    • , M. Rebai
    •  & D. Rigamonti
  124. University of Basilicata, Consorzio CREATE, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli, Italy

    • R. Fresa
  125. University of California, 1111 Franklin St., Oakland, California 94607, USA

    • D. Nishijima
  126. University of Cassino, Consorzio CREATE, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli, Italy

    • F. Villone
  127. University of Helsinki, PO Box 43, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland

    • T. Ahlgren
    • , C. Björkas
    • , K. Heinola
    • , A. Lahtinen
    • , A. Lasa
    • , K. Nordlund
    •  & E. Safi
  128. University of Innsbruck, Fusion@Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften (ÖAW), Austria

    • V. Goloborod’ko
    • , K. Schöpf
    • , D. Tskhakaya jun
    •  & V. Yavorskij
  129. University of Latvia, 19 Raina Blvd., Riga, LV 1586, Latvia

    • L. Avotina
    • , D. Conka
    • , M. Halitovs
    • , J. Jansons
    • , G. Kizane
    • , J. Lapins
    • , A. Lescinskis
    • , E. Pajuste
    • , A. Vitins
    •  & A. Zarins
  130. University of Lorraine, CNRS, UMR7198, YIJL, Nancy, France

    • S. Devaux
  131. University of Napoli “Federico II”, Consorzio CREATE, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli, Italy

    • R. Albanese
    • , G. Ambrosino
    • , V. Coccorese
    • , G. De Tommasi
    • , V. P. Lo Schiavo
    • , S. Minucci
    • , A. Pironti
    •  & G. Rubinacci
  132. University of Napoli Parthenope, Consorzio CREATE, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli, Italy

    • R. Ambrosino
    •  & M. Ariola
  133. University of Texas at Austin, Institute for Fusion Studies, Austin, Texas 78712, Texas, USA

    • B. Breizman
    •  & D. R. Hatch
  134. University of Toyama, Toyama 930-8555, Japan

    • Y. Hatano
  135. University of Tuscia, DEIM, Via del Paradiso 47, 01100 Viterbo, Italy

    • M. Incelli
    •  & M. Moneti
  136. University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD, UK

    • J. Beal
    • , C. Bowman
    • , L. Horvath
    • , J. Leddy
    • , M. Leyland
    • , B. Lipschultz
    • , A. Lunniss
    • , M. Reinke
    • , M. Smithies
    • , H. R. Wilson
    •  & A. Wynn
  137. Vienna University of Technology, Fusion@Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften (ÖAW), Austria

    • F. Köchl
  138. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, PO Box 1000, FIN-02044 VTT, Finland

    • L. Aho-Mantila
    • , M. Airila
    • , A. Hakola
    • , S. Koivuranta
    • , J. Likonen
    • , S.-P. Pehkonen
    • , A. Salmi
    • , P. Sirén
    •  & T. Tala
  139. Wigner Research Centre for Physics, PO B. 49, H - 1525 Budapest, Hungary.

    • G. Bodnár
    • , G. Cseh
    • , D. Dunai
    • , G. Kocsis
    • , G. Petravich
    • , D. Réfy
    • , T. Szabolics
    • , B. Tál
    •  & S. Zoletnik

Consortia

  1. The Alcator C-Mod Team

  2. JET Contributors

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Contributions

All authors have contributed to the publication, being variously involved in the design of the experiments, in running the diagnostics, acquiring data and finally analysing the processed data.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ye. O. Kazakov.

Supplementary information

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About this article

Publication history

Received

Accepted

Published

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/nphys4167

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