Synthetic magnetism has been used to control charge neutral excitations for applications ranging from classical beam steering to quantum simulation. In optomechanics, radiation-pressure-induced parametric coupling between optical (photon) and mechanical (phonon) excitations may be used to break time-reversal symmetry, providing the prerequisite for synthetic magnetism. Here we design and fabricate a silicon optomechanical circuit with both optical and mechanical connectivity between two optomechanical cavities. Driving the two cavities with phase-correlated laser light results in a synthetic magnetic flux, which, in combination with dissipative coupling to the mechanical bath, leads to non-reciprocal transport of photons with 35 dB of isolation. Additionally, optical pumping with blue-detuned light manifests as a particle non-conserving interaction between photons and phonons, resulting in directional optical amplification of 12 dB in the isolator through-direction. These results suggest the possibility of using optomechanical circuits to create a more general class of non-reciprocal optical devices, and further, to enable new topological phases for both light and sound on a microchip.
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The authors would like to thank M. Roukes for the use of his atomic force microscope in the nano-oxidation tuning of the cavities. This work was supported by the AFOSR-MURI Quantum Photonic Matter, the ARO-MURI Quantum Opto-Mechanics with Atoms and Nanostructured Diamond (grant N00014-15-1-2761), the University of Chicago Quantum Engineering Program (A.A.C., A.M.), the ERC Starting Grant OPTOMECH (F.M.), the Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, an NSF Physics Frontiers Center (grant PHY-1125565) with support of the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, and the Kavli Nanoscience Institute at Caltech.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
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Fang, K., Luo, J., Metelmann, A. et al. Generalized non-reciprocity in an optomechanical circuit via synthetic magnetism and reservoir engineering. Nature Phys 13, 465–471 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/nphys4009
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