The conventional cold-particle interpretation of dark matter (known as ‘cold dark matter’, or CDM) still lacks laboratory support and struggles with the basic properties of common dwarf galaxies, which have surprisingly uniform central masses and shallow density profiles1,2,3,4,5. In contrast, galaxies predicted by CDM extend to much lower masses, with steeper, singular profiles6,7,8,9. This tension motivates cold, wavelike dark matter (ψDM) composed of a non-relativistic Bose–Einstein condensate, so the uncertainty principle counters gravity below a Jeans scale10,11,12. Here we achieve cosmological simulations of this quantum state at unprecedentedly high resolution capable of resolving dwarf galaxies, with only one free parameter, mB, the boson mass. We demonstrate the large-scale structure is indistinguishable from CDM, as desired, but differs radically inside galaxies where quantum interference forms solitonic cores surrounded by extended haloes of fluctuating density granules. These results allow us to determine eV using stellar phase-space distributions in dwarf spheroidal galaxies. Denser, more massive solitons are predicted for Milky Way sized galaxies, providing a substantial seed to help explain early spheroid formation. The onset of galaxy formation is substantially delayed relative to CDM, appearing at redshift z ≲ 13 in our simulations.
Standard, thermally generated dark matter remains firmly undetected in laboratory searches for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs; ref. 13). Non-thermal bosonic fields, particularly scalar fields, provide another well-motivated class of dark matter, formed in a non-relativistic, low-momentum state as a cold Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC), and increasingly motivated by extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics and to the mechanism driving the universal expansion14. The field in this context can be described by a coherent wave function ψ with an interference pattern determining the distribution of dark matter, which we term ψDM. Axions are long-standing CDM candidates of this form, and higher-dimensional theories motivate an ‘axiverse’, where a discrete mass spectrum of axion-like particles spans many decades, possibly affecting cosmic structure15.
The distribution of ψDM mimics particle CDM on large scales16,17, and hence distinguishing between CDM and cold, wavelike ψDM is best made on small scales owing to the additional quantum stress10,11,12,17. Dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies are the smallest and most common class of galaxy with internal motions dominated by dark matter. Their basic properties are very hard to explain with standard CDM, including the surprising uniformity of their central masses, M(<300 pc) ≃ 107 M⊙, where M⊙ is the solar mass, and shallow density profiles1,2,3,4,5. In contrast, galaxies predicted by CDM extend to much lower masses, well below the observed dwarf galaxies, with steeper, singular mass profiles6,7,8,9. Adjustments to standard CDM addressing these difficulties consider particle collisions18, or warm dark matter (WDM; ref. 19). WDM can be tuned to suppress small-scale structures, but does not provide large enough flat cores20. Collisional CDM can be adjusted to generate flat cores, but cannot suppress low-mass galaxies without resorting to other baryonic physics21. Better agreement is expected for ψDM because the uncertainty principle counters gravity below a Jeans scale, simultaneously suppressing small-scale structures and limiting the central density of collapsed haloes10,11,12.
Detailed examination of structure formation with ψDM is therefore highly desirable, but, unlike the extensive N-body investigation of standard CDM, no sufficiently high resolution simulations of ψDM have been attempted. The wave mechanics of ψDM can be described by Schrödinger’s equation, coupled to gravity by means of Poisson’s equation16 with negligible microscopic self-interaction. The dynamics here differs from collisionless particle CDM by a new form of stress tensor from quantum uncertainty, giving rise to a co-moving Jeans length, during the matter-dominated epoch17. The insensitivity of λJ to redshift, z, generates a sharp cutoff mass below which structures are suppressed. Cosmological simulations in this context turn out to be much more challenging than standard N-body simulations, as the highest frequency oscillations, ω, given approximately by the matter wave dispersion relation, where λ is the wavelength, occur on the smallest scales, requiring very fine temporal resolution even for moderate spatial resolution (Supplementary Fig. 1). In this work, we optimize an adaptive-mesh-refinement (AMR) scheme, with graphic processing unit acceleration, improving performance by almost two orders of magnitude22 (see Supplementary Section 1 for details).
Figure 1 demonstrates that despite the completely different calculations employed, the pattern of filaments and voids generated by a conventional N-body particle ΛCDM simulation is remarkably indistinguishable from the wavelike ΛψDM for the same linear power spectrum (Supplementary Fig. 3). Here Λ represents the cosmological constant. This agreement is desirable given the success of standard ΛCDM in describing the statistics of large-scale structure. To examine the wave nature that distinguishes ψDM from CDM on small scales, we re-simulate with a very high maximum resolution of 60 pc for a 2 Mpc co-moving box, so that the densest objects formed of ≳300 pc size are well resolved with ∼103 grids. A slice through this box is shown in Fig. 2, revealing fine interference fringes defining long filaments, with tangential fringes near the boundaries of virialized objects, where the de Broglie wavelengths depend on the local velocity of matter. An unexpected feature of our ψDM simulations is the generation of prominent dense coherent standing waves of dark matter in the centre of every gravitational bound object, forming a flat core with a sharp boundary (Figs 2 and 3). These dark matter cores grow as material is accreted and are surrounded by virialized haloes of material with fine-scale, large-amplitude cellular interference, which continuously fluctuate in density and velocity, generating quantum and turbulent pressure support against gravity.
The central density profiles of all our collapsed cores fit well the stable soliton solution of the Schrödinger–Poisson equation, as shown in Fig. 3 (see also Supplementary Section 2 and Figs 2 and 4). On the other hand, except for the lightest halo, which has just formed and is not yet virialized, the outer profiles of other haloes possess a steepening logarithmic slope, similar to the Navarro–Frenk–White (NFW) profile23 of standard CDM. These solitonic cores, which are gravitationally self-bound and appear as additional mass clumps superposed on the NFW profile, are clearly distinct from the cores formed by WDM and collisional CDM, which truncate the NFW cuspy inner profile at lower values and require an external halo for confinement. The radius of the soliton scales inversely with mass, such that the widest cores are the least massive and are hosted by the least massive galaxies. Eighty percent of the haloes in the simulation have an average density within 300 pc (defined as ρ300) in the range 5.3 × 10−3–6.1 × 10−1 M⊙/pc3, consistent with the dSph satellites around the Milky Way3,24, and objects like these are resilient to close interaction with massive galaxies. By contrast, the very lowest mass objects in our simulation have ρ300 ∼ 4.0 × 10−4 M⊙/pc3 and Mvir ∼ 108 M⊙, but exist only briefly as they are vulnerable to tidal disruption by large galaxies in our simulations. Together with the cutoff in the power spectrum at the Jeans scale (Supplementary Fig. 3), this leads to a marked suppression of substructure below a few times 108 M⊙ relative to the prediction of standard CDM (refs 8, 9). A quantitative evaluation of the mass function of satellite galaxies predicted by ψDM with larger simulations is thus another crucial test to be addressed.
The prominent solitonic cores uncovered in our simulations provide an opportunity to estimate the boson mass, mB, by comparison with observations, particularly for dSph galaxies where dark matter dominates. The local Fornax dSph galaxy is the best studied case, with thousands of stellar velocity measurements, allowing a detailed comparison with our soliton mass profile. We perform a Jeans analysis for the dominant intermediate metallicity stellar population, which exhibits a nearly uniform projected velocity dispersion (σ‖; ref. 25). We simultaneously reproduce well the radial distribution of the stars25 (Fig. 4a) and their velocity dispersion with negligible velocity anisotropy, with eV and a core radius kpc (Supplementary Fig. 5). The corresponding core mass M(r ≤ rc) is ≃9.2 × 107 M⊙, which is hosted by a halo with virial mass ≃4 × 109M⊙ in the simulations. These results are similar to other estimates for Fornax5,26,27 (Fig. 4b) and consistent with other dSph galaxies derived by a variety of means4,26,28 (see Supplementary Section 3 for details).
For more massive galaxies, the solitons we predict are denser and more massive, scaling approximately as . So for the Milky Way, adopting a total mass of Mvir = 1012 M⊙, we expect a soliton of Ms ≃ 2 × 109 M⊙, with a core radius ≃ 180 pc and a potential depth corresponding to a line-of-sight velocity dispersion σ‖ ≃ 115 km s−1 for test particles satisfying the virial condition with the soliton potential. At face value this seems consistent with the Milky Way bulge velocity dispersion, where a distinctive flat peak is observed at a level of σ‖ ≃ 110 km s−1 within a projected radius ∼200 pc (refs 29, 30). Such cores clearly have implications for the creation of spheroids, acting as an essential seed for the prompt attraction of gas within a deepened potential. Indeed, bulge stars with [Fe/H] > −1.0 are firmly established as a uniformly old population that formed rapidly30,31, a conclusion that standard ΛCDM struggles to explain through extended accretion and merging30. The implications for early spheroid formation and compact nuclear objects in general can be explored self-consistently with the addition of baryons to the ψDM code, to model the interplay among stars, gas and ψDM, which will provide model rotation curves for an important test of this model.
At high redshift, the earliest galaxies formed from ψDM are delayed relative to standard CDM, limited by the small amplitude of the Jeans mass at radiation–matter equality, after which the first structures grow. This is demonstrated with a ψDM simulation of a 30 h−1 Mpc box where we adopt mB = 8.0 × 10−23 eV derived above. The first bound object collapses at z ≃ 13, with a clear solitonic core of mass ≃109 M⊙ and radius ≃300 pc, whereas under ΛCDM the first objects should form at z ≃ 50 with masses of only 104–105 M⊙ (ref. 32). The highest redshift galaxy at present at z ≃ 10.7 is multiply lensed, seeming smooth and spherical, with a stellar radius ≃100 pc (ref. 33), similar to local dSph galaxies. Deeper cluster lensing data from the Hubble ‘Frontier Fields’ programme will soon meaningfully explore the mass limits of galaxy formation to higher redshift, allowing us to better distinguish between particle and wavelike cold dark matter.
Moore, B. Evidence against dissipation-less dark matter from observations of galaxy haloes. Nature 370, 629–631 (1994).
Gilmore, G. et al. The observed properties of dark matter on small spatial scales. Astrophys. J. 663, 948–959 (2007).
Strigari, L. E. et al. A common mass scale for satellite galaxies of the Milky Way. Nature 454, 1096–1097 (2008).
Walker, M. G. & Peñarrubia, J. A method for measuring (slopes of) the mass profiles of dwarf spheroidal galaxies. Astrophys. J. 742, 20–38 (2011).
Amorisco, N. C., Agnello, A. & Evans, N. W. The core size of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 429, L89–L93 (2013).
Dubinski, J. & Carlberg, R. G. The structure of cold dark matter halos. Astrophys. J. 378, 496–503 (1991).
Kauffmann, G., White, S. D. M. & Guiderdoni, B. The formation and evolution of galaxies within merging dark matter haloes. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 264, 201–218 (1993).
Klypin, A., Kravtsov, A. V., Valenzuela, O. & Prada, F. Where are the missing galactic satellites? Astrophys. J. 522, 82–92 (1999).
Moore, B. et al. Dark matter substructure within galactic halos. Astrophys. J. 524, L19–L22 (1999).
Peebles, P. J. E. Fluid dark matter. Astrophys. J. 534, L127–L129 (2000).
Hu, W., Barkana, R. & Gruzinov, A. Fuzzy cold dark matter: The wave properties of ultralight particles. Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1158–1161 (2000).
Marsh, D. J. E. & Silk, J. A model for halo formation with axion mixed dark matter. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 437, 2652–2663 (2014).
Akerib, D. S. et al. First results from the LUX dark matter experiment at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 091303 (2014).
Peebles, P. J. E. & Ratra, B. Cosmology with a time-variable cosmological ‘constant’. Astrophys. J. 325, L17–L20 (1988).
Arvanitaki, A., Dimopoulos, S., Dubovsky, S., Kaloper, N. & March-Russell, J. String axiverse. Phys. Rev. D 81, 123530 (2010).
Widrow, L. M. & Kaiser, N. Using the Schroedinger equation to simulate collisionless matter. Astrophys. J. 416, L71–L74 (1993).
Woo, T-P. & Chiueh, T. High-resolution simulation on structure formation with extremely light bosonic dark matter. Astrophys. J. 697, 850–861 (2009).
Spergel, D. N. & Steinhardt, P. J. Observational evidence for self-interacting cold dark matter. Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3760–3763 (2000).
Bode, P., Ostriker, J. P. & Turok, N. Halo formation in warm dark matter models. Astrophys. J. 556, 93–107 (2001).
Macciò, A. V., Paduroiu, S., Anderhalden, D., Schneider, A. & Moore, B. Cores in warm dark matter haloes: A Catch 22 problem. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 424, 1105–1112 (2012).
Rocha, M. et al. Cosmological simulations with self-interacting dark matter—I. Constant-density cores and substructure. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 430, 81–104 (2013).
Schive, H-Y., Tsai, Y-C. & Chiueh, T. GAMER: A graphic processing unit accelerated adaptive-mesh-refinement code for astrophysics. Astrophys. J. Suppl. 186, 457–484 (2010).
Navarro, J. F., Frenk, C. S. & White, S. D. M. The structure of cold dark matter halos. Astrophys. J. 462, 563–575 (1996).
Amorisco, N. C. & Evans, N. W. Phase-space models of the dwarf spheroidals. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 411, 2118–2136 (2011).
Amorisco, N. C. & Evans, N. W. A troublesome past: Chemodynamics of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal. Astrophys. J. 756, L2–L6 (2012).
Wolf, J. et al. Accurate masses for dispersion-supported galaxies. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 406, 1220–1237 (2010).
Cole, D. R., Dehnen, W., Read, J. I. & Wilkinson, M. I. The mass distribution of the Fornax dSph: Constraints from its globular cluster distribution. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 426, 601–613 (2012).
Lora, V., Magaña, J., Bernal, A., Sánchez-Salcedo, F. J. & Grebel, E. K. On the mass of ultra-light bosonic dark matter from galactic dynamics. J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 2, 11–32 (2012).
Minniti, D. Field stars and clusters of the galactic bulge: Implications for galaxy formation. Astrophys. J. 459, 175–180 (1996).
Ness, M. et al. ARGOS - IV. The kinematics of the Milky Way bulge. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 432, 2092–2103 (2013).
Zoccali, M. et al. Age and metallicity distribution of the galactic bulge from extensive optical and near-IR stellar photometry. Astron. Astrophys. 399, 931–956 (2003).
Abel, T., Bryan, G. L. & Norman, M. L. The formation of the first star in the universe. Science 295, 93–98 (2002).
Coe, D. et al. CLASH: Three strongly lensed images of a candidate z ≍ 11 galaxy. Astrophys. J. 762, 32–52 (2013).
Springel, V. The cosmological simulation code GADGET-2. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 364, 1105–1134 (2005).
Burkert, A. The structure of dark matter halos in dwarf galaxies. Astrophys. J. 447, L25–L28 (1995).
We thank T-P. Woo for calculating the soliton solution and M-H. Liao for helping conduct the simulations. We acknowledge Chipbond Technology Corporation for donating the GPU cluster with which this work was conducted. This work is supported in part by the National Science Council of Taiwan under grants NSC100-2112-M-002-018-MY3 and NSC99-2112-M-002-009-MY3.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
About this article
Cite this article
Schive, HY., Chiueh, T. & Broadhurst, T. Cosmic structure as the quantum interference of a coherent dark wave. Nature Phys 10, 496–499 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1038/nphys2996
This article is cited by
Nature Astronomy (2023)
Journal of High Energy Physics (2023)
Journal of High Energy Physics (2023)
Living Reviews in Relativity (2023)
Living Reviews in Computational Astrophysics (2022)