Abstract

Environmental noise and disorder play critical roles in quantum particle and wave transport in complex media, including solid-state and biological systems. While separately both effects are known to reduce transport, recent work predicts that in a limited region of parameter space, noise-induced dephasing can counteract localization effects, leading to enhanced quantum transport. Photonic integrated circuits are promising platforms for studying such effects, with a central goal of developing large systems providing low-loss, high-fidelity control over all parameters of the transport problem. Here, we fully map the role of disorder in quantum transport using a nanophotonic processor: a mesh of 88 generalized beamsplitters programmable on microsecond timescales. Over 64,400 experiments we observe distinct transport regimes, including environment-assisted quantum transport and the ‘quantum Goldilocks’ regime in statically disordered discrete-time systems. Low-loss and high-fidelity programmable transformations make this nanophotonic processor a promising platform for many-boson quantum simulation experiments.

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Acknowledgements

N.C.H. and M.P. acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program grants 1122374 and 1122374, respectively. G.S. acknowledges support from the Department of Defense National Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship. Y.L. acknowledges support from the Pappalardo Fellowship in Physics. This work was supported in part by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (FA9550-14-1-0052) and the Air Force Research Laboratory programme (FA8750-14-2-0120). M.H. acknowledges support from the AFOSR Small Business Technology Transfer programme (FA9550-12-C-0079 and FA9550-12-C-0038) and G. Pomrenke, of AFOSR, for his support of the optoelectronic systems integration in silicon (OpSIS) effort, through a Presidential Early Career Award in Science and Engineering award (FA9550-13-1-0027) and funding for OpSIS (FA9550-10-1-0439). D.E. acknowledges support by Excitonics, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under award no. desc0001088. The authors thank C. Galland for his discussions about the result.

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA

    • Nicholas C. Harris
    • , Gregory R. Steinbrecher
    • , Mihika Prabhu
    • , Jacob Mower
    •  & Dirk Englund
  2. Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA

    • Yoav Lahini
  3. Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA

    • Darius Bunandar
  4. Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA

    • Changchen Chen
    •  & Franco N. C. Wong
  5. Elenion Technologies, 171 Madison Avenue, Suite 1100, New York, New York 10016, USA

    • Tom Baehr-Jones
    •  & Michael Hochberg
  6. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA

    • Seth Lloyd

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Contributions

N.C.H. designed the photonic integrated circuit and experimental set-up and performed the experiments. N.C.H. laid out the design mask, with assistance from G.S. on metal routing. N.C.H. and M.P. calibrated the system. N.C.H., Y.L., G.S., S.L. and D.E. conceived the experiment. D.B. assisted with the theory. C.C. and F.N.C.W. assisted with multiphoton experiments. T.B.-J. and M.H. fabricated the system. All authors contributed to writing the paper.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Nicholas C. Harris.

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DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2017.95

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