High-performance direct conversion X-ray detectors based on sintered hybrid lead triiodide perovskite wafers


Lead halide perovskite semiconductors are in general known to have an inherently high X-ray absorption cross-section and a significantly higher carrier mobility than any other low-temperature solution-processed semiconductor. So far, the processing of several-hundred-micrometres-thick high-quality crystalline perovskite films over a large area has been unresolved for efficient X-ray detection. In this Article, we present a mechanical sintering process to fabricate polycrystalline methyl ammonium lead triiodide perovskite (MAPbI3) wafers with millimetre thickness and well-defined crystallinity. Benchmarking of the MAPbI3 wafers against state-of-the-art CdTe detectors reveals competitive conversion efficiencies of 2,527 µC Gyair−1 cm−2 under 70 kVp X-ray exposure. The high ambipolar mobility–lifetime product of 2 × 10−4 cm2 V−1 is suggested to be responsible for this exceptionally high sensitivity. Our findings inform a new generation of highly efficient and low-cost X-ray detectors based on perovskite wafers.

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Figure 1: Images of the sintered MAPbI3 wafer.
Figure 2: Mechanical and structural properties of the MAPbI3 wafer.
Figure 3: Charge transport investigations.
Figure 4: Direct X-ray to current conversion.


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The Cluster of Excellence Engineering of Advanced Materials (EAM) at the FAU University Erlangen and the Gradko 1896 ‘in situ Microscopy’ (DFG) is acknowledged for support. The authors thank C.O. Quiroz and M. Salvador for reading the manuscript.

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S.S., R.F., G.J.M., T.M., O.S., M.R. and S.F.T. performed the electrical characterization under X-ray exposure at the Siemens Healthineers Technology Center. I.L. and S.S. synthesized the MAPbI3 single crystals and microcrystals. H.C. helped with processing of the X-ray detectors. S.S., A.O. and G.M. performed TOF experiments. B.M. and P.F. carried out the mechanical investigations. R.H. interpreted the XRD data. S.S. and S.G. performed the SEM investigation. G.J.M. wrote the manuscript. M.G., W.H., G.A. and C.J.B. initiated and supervised the work. All authors reviewed the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Gebhard J. Matt.

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Shrestha, S., Fischer, R., Matt, G. et al. High-performance direct conversion X-ray detectors based on sintered hybrid lead triiodide perovskite wafers. Nature Photon 11, 436–440 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2017.94

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