Integrated circuits based on complementary metal-oxide–semiconductors (CMOS) are at the heart of the technological revolution of the past 40 years, enabling compact and low-cost microelectronic circuits and imaging systems. However, the diversification of this platform into applications other than microcircuits and visible-light cameras has been impeded by the difficulty to combine semiconductors other than silicon with CMOS. Here, we report the monolithic integration of a CMOS integrated circuit with graphene, operating as a high-mobility phototransistor. We demonstrate a high-resolution, broadband image sensor and operate it as a digital camera that is sensitive to ultraviolet, visible and infrared light (300–2,000 nm). The demonstrated graphene–CMOS integration is pivotal for incorporating 2D materials into the next-generation microelectronics, sensor arrays, low-power integrated photonics and CMOS imaging systems covering visible, infrared and terahertz frequencies.
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $15.58 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Rent or Buy article
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors www.itrs2.net (2016).
Schwierz, F., Wong, H. & Liou, J. J. Nanometer CMOS (Pan Stanford, 2010).
Theuwissen, A. J. P. CMOS image sensors: state-of-the-art. Solid. State. Electron. 52, 1401–1406 (2008).
Canon develops APS-H-size CMOS sensor with approximately 250 megapixels, the world's highest pixel count for its size http://www.canon.com/news/2015/sep07e.html (2015).
Choubey, B. & Gouveia, L. C. P. On evolution of CMOS image sensors. In Proc. 8th Int. Conf. Sensing Technology 89–94 (2014).
Miller, D. B. Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips. Proc. IEEE 88, 728–749 (2000).
Ferrari, A. C. et al. Science and technology roadmap for graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems. Nanoscale 7, 4598–4810 (2014).
Pospischil, A. et al. CMOS-compatible graphene photodetector covering all optical communication bands. Nat. Photon. 7, 892–896 (2013).
Gan, X. et al. Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity. Nat. Photon. 7, 883–887 (2013).
Wang, X., Cheng, Z., Xu, K., Tsang, H. K. & Xu, J. High-responsivity graphene/silicon-heterostructure waveguide photodetectors. Nat. Photon. 7, 888–891 (2013).
Withers, F. et al. Light-emitting diodes by band-structure engineering in van der Waals heterostructures. Nat. Mater. 14, 301–306 (2015).
Liu, M. et al. A graphene-based broadband optical modulator. Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
Schall, D. et al. 50 GBit/s photodetectors based on wafer-scale graphene for integrated silicon photonic communication systems. ACS Photon. 1, 781–784 (2014).
Koppens, F. H. L. et al. Photodetectors based on graphene, other two-dimensional materials and hybrid systems. Nat. Nanotech. 9, 780–793 (2014).
Guo, W. et al. Oxygen-assisted charge transfer between ZnO quantum dots and graphene. Small 9, 3031–3036 (2013).
Sun, Z. et al. Infrared photodetectors based on CVD-grown graphene and PbS quantum dots with ultrahigh responsivity. Adv. Mater. 24, 5878–5883 (2012).
Konstantatos, G. et al. Hybrid graphene–quantum dot phototransistors with ultrahigh gain. Nat. Nanotech. 7, 363–368 (2012).
Freitag, M. et al. Photocurrent in graphene harnessed by tunable intrinsic plasmons. Nat. Commun. 4, 1951 (2013).
Badioli, M. et al. Phonon-mediated mid-infrared photoresponse of graphene. Nano Lett. 14, 6374–6381 (2014).
Cai, X. et al. Sensitive room-temperature terahertz detection via the photothermoelectric effect in graphene. Nat. Nanotech. 9, 814–819 (2014).
Vicarelli, L. et al. Graphene field-effect transistors as room-temperature terahertz detectors. Nat. Mater. 11, 865–871 (2012).
Dauber, J. et al. Ultra-sensitive Hall sensors based on graphene encapsulated in hexagonal boron nitride. Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 193501 (2015).
Huang, L. et al. Graphene/Si CMOS hybrid Hall integrated circuits. Sci. Rep. 4, 5548 (2014).
Han, S.-J., Garcia, A. V., Oida, S., Jenkins, K. A. & Haensch, W. Graphene radio frequency receiver integrated circuit. Nat. Commun. 5, 3086 (2014).
Wang, Q. et al. Graphene ‘microdrums’ on a freestanding perforated thin membrane for high sensitivity MEMS pressure sensors. Nanoscale 8, 7663–7671 (2016).
Pumera, M., Ambrosi, A., Bonanni, A., Chng, E. L. K. & Poh, H. L. Graphene for electrochemical sensing and biosensing. TrAC Trends Anal. Chem. 29, 954–965 (2010).
Smith, A. D. et al. Resistive graphene humidity sensors with rapid and direct electrical readout. Nanoscale 7, 19099–19109 (2015).
Wu, Y. et al. High-frequency, scaled graphene transistors on diamond-like carbon. Nature 472, 74–78 (2011).
Radisavljevic, B., Radenovic, A., Brivio, J., Giacometti, V. & Kis, A. Single-layer MoS2 transistors. Nat. Nanotech. 6, 147–150 (2011).
Li, X. et al. Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils. Science 324, 1312–1314 (2009).
Bonaccorso, F. et al. Production and processing of graphene and 2d crystals. Mater. Today 15, 564–589 (December, 2012).
Rahimi, S. et al. Toward 300 mm wafer-scalable high-performance polycrystalline chemical vapor deposited graphene transistors. ACS Nano 8, 10471–10479 (2014).
Hyperspectral Imaging Systems Market by Application & Component – 2021 (marketsandmarkets.com, 2017); http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/hyperspectral-imaging-market-246979343.html
Golic, M., Walsh, K. & Lawson, P. Short-wavelength near-infrared spectra of sucrose, glucose, and fructose with respect to sugar concentration and temperature. Appl. Spectrosc. 57, 139–145 (2003).
Rauch, T. et al. Near-infrared imaging with quantum-dot-sensitized organic photodiodes. Nat. Photon. 3, 332–336 (2009).
Hooge, F. N. 1/ƒ noise is no surface effect. Phys. Lett. A 29, 139–140 (1969).
Ohya, H., Tacano, M., Pavelka, J., Sikula, J. & Musha, T. Ultimate absolute Hooge parameter for semiconductors and graphene. In Int. Conf. Noise and Fluctuations (ICNF) 1–4 (IEEE, 2015).
Nikitskiy, I. et al. Integrating an electrically active colloidal quantum dot photodiode with a graphene phototransistor. Nat. Commun. 7, 11954 (2016).
Banszerus, L. et al. Ultrahigh-mobility graphene devices from chemical vapor deposition on reusable copper. Sci. Adv. 1, e1500222 (2015).
Huo, N., Gupta, S. & Konstantatos, G. MoS2–HgTe quantum dot hybrid photodetectors beyond 2 µm. Adv. Mater. 29, 1606576 (2017).
Vatsia, M. L. Atmospheric Optical Environment Research and Development Techincal Report ECOM-7023 (US Army Electronics Command, 1972).
The authors acknowledge M. Montagut and F. Vialla for creating original artwork. F.K. and G.K. acknowledge financial support from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, through the ‘Severo Ochoa’ Programme for Centres of Excellence in R&D (SEV-2015–0522), support by Fundacio Cellex Barcelona, and CERCA Programme/Generalitat de Catalunya, from the Government of Catalonia through the SGR grant (2014-SGR-1535) and from the Ajuntament de Barcelona. Furthermore, the research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme under grant agreement no. 696656 Graphene Flagship and ERC Proof-of-concept GRAQUADOT (reference 620233). G.K. acknowledges financial support from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) and the ‘Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional’ (FEDER) through grant MAT2014-56210-R as well as AGAUR under the SGR grant (2014SGR1548).
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
About this article
Cite this article
Goossens, S., Navickaite, G., Monasterio, C. et al. Broadband image sensor array based on graphene–CMOS integration. Nature Photon 11, 366–371 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2017.75
ACS Applied Electronic Materials (2020)
ACS Applied Electronic Materials (2020)
Advanced Materials (2020)
Ultrasensitive graphene position-sensitive detector induced by synergistic effects of charge injection and interfacial gating
Optics and Lasers in Engineering (2020)