Collective strong coupling of X-rays and nuclei in a nuclear optical lattice

Abstract

The advent of third-generation synchrotron radiation sources and X-ray free-electron lasers has opened up the opportunity to perform quantum optical experiments with high-energy X-rays. The prime atomic system for experiments in this energy range is the strongly nuclear resonant 57Fe Mössbauer isotope. Experiments have included measurements of the collective Lamb shift1, observation of electromagnetically induced transparency2, subluminal propagation of X-rays3,6 and spontaneously generated coherences4,5,7. In these experiments, however, the nuclei were only weakly coupled to the light field. Collective strong coupling of nuclei and X-rays, which is desirable for many quantum optical applications, has eluded researchers so far. Here, we observe collective strong coupling between X-rays and matter excitations in a periodic array of alternating 57Fe and 56Fe layers. Our experiment extends the range of methods for X-ray quantum optics and paves the way for the observation and exploitation of strong-coupling-related phenomena at X-ray energies.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1: Experimental set-up.
Figure 2: Angular-dependent dispersion relation.
Figure 3: Dispersion relation of an infinite array of 57Fe nuclei arranged in a bichromatic lattice.
Figure 4: Calculated multilayer reflectivity.
Figure 5: Measured energy spectra of the multilayer reflectivity.

References

  1. 1

    Röhlsberger, R., Schlage, K., Sahoo, B., Couet, S. & Rüffer, R. Collective Lamb shift in single photon superradiance. Science 328, 1248 (2010).

  2. 2

    Röhlsberger, R., Wille, H., Schlage, K. & Sahoo, B. Electromagnetically induced transparency with resonant nuclei in a cavity. Nature 482, 199–203 (2011).

  3. 3

    Heeg, K. P. et al. Tunable subluminal propagation of narrow-band X-ray pulses. Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 203601 (2015).

  4. 4

    Heeg, K. P. et al. Vacuum-assisted generation and control of atomic coherences at X-ray energies. Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 073601 (2013).

  5. 5

    Heeg, K. P. & Evers, J. Quantum optics with Mössbauer nuclei in a cavity. Phys. Rev. A 88, 043828 (2013).

  6. 6

    Vagizov, F., Antonov, V., Radeonychev, Y., Shakhmuratov, R. N. & Kocharovskaya, O. Coherent control of the waveforms of recoilless γ-ray photons. Nature 508, 80–83 (2014).

  7. 7

    Heeg, K. P. et al. Interferometric phase detection at X-ray energies via Fano resonance control. Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 207401 (2015).

  8. 8

    Goldberg, D. et al. Exciton-lattice polaritons in multiple-quantum-well-based photonic crystals. Nature Photon. 3, 662–666 (2009).

  9. 9

    Schilke, A., Zimmermann, C., Courteille, P. & Guerin, W. Optical parametric oscillation with distributed feedback in cold atoms. Nature Photon. 6, 101–104 (2012).

  10. 10

    Askitopoulos, A. et al. Bragg polaritons: strong coupling and amplification in an unfolded microcavity. Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 076401 (2011).

  11. 11

    Kaina, N ., Fink, M. & Lerosey, G. Composite media mixing Bragg and local resonances for highly attenuating and broad bandgaps. Sci. Rep. 3, 3240 (2013).

  12. 12

    Deutsch, I. H., Spreeuw, R. J. C., Rolston, S. L. & Phillips, W. D. Photonic band gaps in optical lattices. Phys. Rev. A 52, 1394–1410 (1995).

  13. 13

    Weidemüller, M., Hemmerich, A., Görlitz, A., Esslinger, T. & Hänsch, T. W. Bragg diffraction in an atomic lattice bound by light. Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4583–4586 (1995).

  14. 14

    Ivchenko, E. & Poddubny, A. Resonant diffraction of electromagnetic waves from solids (a review). Phys. Solid State 55, 905–923 (2013).

  15. 15

    Hübner, M. et al. Optical lattices achieved by excitons in periodic quantum well structures. Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2841–2844 (1999).

  16. 16

    Deàk, L. et al. Pure nuclear Bragg reflection of a periodic 56Fe/57Fe multilayer. J. Appl. Phys. 85, 1–7 (1999).

  17. 17

    Röhlsberger, R., Witthoff, E., Gerdau, E. & Lüken, E. Observation of nuclear diffraction from multilayers with a 56Fe/57Fe superstructure. J. Appl. Phys. 74, 1933–1937 (1993).

  18. 18

    Chumakov, A. & Smirnov, G. Nuclear-resonance monochromator for synchrotron radiation using a multilayer 57Fe-56Fe structure. Pis'ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 53, 258–262 (1991).

  19. 19

    Chumakov, A., Niesen, L., Nagy, D. & Alp, E. Nuclear resonant scattering of synchrotron radiation by multilayer structures. Hyperfine Interact. 123–124, 427–454 (1999).

  20. 20

    Chumakov, A. et al. Resonant diffraction of synchrotron radiation by a nuclear multilayer. Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2489–2492 (1993).

  21. 21

    Sturhahn, W. & Gerdau, E. Evaluation of time-differential measurements of nuclear-resonance scattering of X-rays. Phys. Rev. B 49, 9285–9294 (1994).

  22. 22

    Röhlsberger, R. Nuclear Condensed Matter Physics with Synchrotron Radiation. Basic Principles, Methodology and Applications No. 208 (Springer Tracts in Modern Physics, Springer, 2004).

  23. 23

    Röhlsberger, R. Theory of X-ray grazing incidence reflection in the presence of nuclear resonance excitation. Hyperfine Interact. 123–124, 301–325 (1999).

  24. 24

    Parratt, L. G. Surface studies of solids by total reflection of X-rays. Phys. Rev. 95, 359–369 (1954).

  25. 25

    Rist, S., Vignolo, P. & Morigi, G. Photonic spectrum of bichromatic optical lattices. Phys. Rev. A 79, 053822 (2009).

  26. 26

    Chong, Y. D., Pritchard, D. E. & Soljačić, M. Quantum theory of a resonant photonic crystal. Phys. Rev. B 75, 235124 (2007).

  27. 27

    Ikawa, T. & Cho, K. Fate of the superradiant mode in a resonant Bragg reflector. Phys. Rev. B 66, 085338 (2002).

  28. 28

    Salomon, A., Gordon, R. J., Prior, Y., Seideman, T. & Sukharev, M. Strong coupling between molecular excited states and surface plasmon modes of a slit array in a thin metal film. Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 073002 (2012).

  29. 29

    Weisbuch, C., Nishioka, M., Ishikawa, A. & Arakawa, Y. Observation of the coupled exciton–photon mode splitting in a semiconductor quantum microcavity. Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3314–3317 (1992).

  30. 30

    Rüffer, R. & Chumakov, A. Nuclear resonance beamline at ESRF. Hyperfine Interact. 97–98, 589–604 (1996).

  31. 31

    Kozhekin, A. & Kurizki, G. Self-induced transparency in Bragg reflectors: gap solitons near absorption resonances. Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5020–5023 (1995).

  32. 32

    Kasprzak, J. et al. Bose–Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons. Nature 443, 409–414 (2006).

  33. 33

    Savvidis, P. G. et al. Angle-resonant stimulated polariton amplifier. Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 1547–1550 (2000).

  34. 34

    Toellner, T. S. et al. Polarizer/analyzer filter for nuclear resonant scattering of synchrotron radiation. Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1993–1995 (1995).

  35. 35

    Marx, B. et al. High-precision X-ray polarimetry. Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 254801 (2013).

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors thank D. Schumacher for discussions and assistance during the experiment, and J. Evers and K. Heeg for discussions. The authors acknowledge support from the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (project no. 05K13SJ1).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

R.R. conceived the experiment and coordinated the experimental efforts. K.S.S., R.L., H.B., I.U. and G.G.P. developed the polarimetry set-up. T.G. fabricated the sample. K.S.S., R.L., J.H., L.B., K.S., H.-C.W., H.B., I.U., R.R. and R.R. participated in performing the experiment. J.H. developed the theoretical interpretation and performed the data analysis. J.H. and R.R. wrote the manuscript. All authors participated in discussing the results.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ralf Röhlsberger.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Supplementary information

Supplementary information

Supplementary information (PDF 412 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Haber, J., Schulze, K., Schlage, K. et al. Collective strong coupling of X-rays and nuclei in a nuclear optical lattice. Nature Photon 10, 445–449 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2016.77

Download citation

Further reading