Rare-earth ions in solids are of particular interest for quantum information storage and processing because of the long coherence times of the 4f states1. In the past few years, substantial progress has been made by using ensembles of ions2,3,4,5,6 and single ions7,8,9,10. However, the weak optical transitions within the 4f manifold pose a great challenge to the optical interaction with a single rare-earth ion on a single-photon level. Here, we demonstrate a ninefold enhanced ion–light interaction (Purcell effect11) in an integrated-optics-based, fibre-coupled silicon nitride (Si3N4) ring resonator with implanted ytterbium ions (Yb3+). We unveil the one-, two- and three-dimensional contributions to the Purcell factor as well as the temperature-dependent decoherence and depolarization of the ions. The results indicate that this cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) system has the potential of interfacing single rare-earth ions with single photons on a chip.
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $15.58 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Rent or Buy article
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Fraval, E., Sellars, M. J. & Longdell, J. J. Dynamic decoherence control of a solid-state nuclear-quadrupole qubit. Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 030506 (2005).
Clausen, C. et al. Quantum storage of photonic entanglement in a crystal. Nature 469, 508–511 (2011).
Saglamyurek, E. et al. Broadband waveguide quantum memory for entangled photons. Nature 469, 512–515 (2011).
Usmani, I. et al. Heralded quantum entanglement between two crystals. Nature Photon. 6, 234–237 (2012).
Saglamyurek, E. et al. Quantum storage of entangled telecom-wavelength photons in an erbium-doped optical fibre. Nature Photon. 9, 83–87 (2015).
Zhong, M. et al. Optically addressable nuclear spins in a solid with a six-hour coherence time. Nature 517, 177–180 (2015).
Kolesov, R. et al.. Optical detection of a single rare-earth ion in a crystal. Nature Commun. 3, 1029 (2012).
Siyushev, P. et al.. Coherent properties of single rare-earth spin qubits. Nature Commun. 5, 3895 (2014).
Yin, C. et al. Optical addressing of an individual erbium ion in silicon. Nature 497, 91–94 (2013).
Utikal, T. et al.. Spectroscopic detection and state preparation of a single praseodymium ion in a crystal. Nature Commun. 5, 3627 (2014).
Purcell, E. M. Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies. Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).
Gong, Y. et al. Linewidth narrowing and Purcell enhancement in photonic crystal cavities on an Er-doped silicon nitride platform. Opt. Express 18, 2601–2612 (2010).
Gong, Y. et al. Observation of transparency of erbium-doped silicon nitride in photonic crystal nanobeam cavities. Opt. Express 18, 13863–13873 (2010).
Zhong, T., Kindem, J. M., Miyazono, E. & Faraon, A. Nanophotonic coherent light–matter interfaces based on rare-earth-doped crystals. Nature Commun. 6, 8206 (2015).
McAuslan, D. L., Korystov, D. & Longdell, J. J. Coherent spectroscopy of rare-earth-metal-ion-doped whispering-gallery-mode resonators. Phys. Rev. A 83, 063847 (2011).
Vredenberg, A. M. et al. Controlled atomic spontaneous emission from Er3+in a transparent Si/SiO2 microcavity. Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 517–520 (1993).
Lipson, M. & Kimerling, L. C. Er3+ in strong light-confining microcavity. Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1150–1152 (2000).
Goto, H., Nakamura, S., Kujiraoka, M. & Ichimura, K. Cavity-enhanced spectroscopy of a rare-earth-ion-doped crystal: observation of a power law for inhomogeneous broadening. Opt. Express 21, 24332–24343 (2013).
Urbach, H. P. & Rikken, G. L. J. A. Spontaneous emission from a dielectric slab. Phys. Rev. A 57, 3913–3930 (1998).
Jun, Y. C., Briggs, R. M., Atwater, H. A. & Brongersma, M. L. Broadband enhancement of light emission in silicon slot waveguides. Opt. Express 17, 7479–7490 (2009).
Jamison, S. P. & Reeves, R. J. Optical depolarization in CaF2:RE3+ and SrF2:RE3+C4v centers due to dipole reorientation. J. Lumin. 66–67, 169–173 (1995).
Genov, D. A., Oulton, R. F., Bartal, G. & Zhang, X. Anomalous spectral scaling of light emission rates in low-dimensional metallic nanostructures. Phys. Rev. B 83, 245312 (2011).
Bauters, J. F. et al. Ultra-low-loss high-aspect-ratio Si3N4 waveguides. Opt. Express 19, 3163–3174 (2011).
Tien, M.-C. et al. Ultra-high quality factor planar Si3N4 ring resonators on Si substrates. Opt. Express 19, 13551–13556 (2011).
Bauters, J. F. et al. Planar waveguides with less than 0.1 dB/m propagation loss fabricated with wafer bonding. Opt. Express 19, 24090–24101 (2011).
Ding, D. et al. Fano resonances in a multimode waveguide coupled to a high-Q silicon nitride ring resonator. Opt. Express 22, 6778–6790 (2014).
Yeh, D. C., Sibley, W. A., Suscavage, M. & Drexhage, M. G. Radiation effects and optical transitions in Yb3+doped barium-thorium fluoride glass. J. Non-Cryst. Solids 88, 66–82 (1986).
Brundage, R. T. & Yen, W. M. Low-temperature homogeneous linewidths of Yb3+ in inorganic glasses. Phys. Rev. B 33, 4436–4438 (1986).
Hegarty, J., Broer, M. M., Golding, B., Simpson, J. R. & MacChesney, J. B. Photon echoes below 1 K in a Nd3+-doped glass fiber. Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 2033–2035 (1983).
Staudt, M. U. et al. Investigations of optical coherence properties in an erbium-doped silicate fiber for quantum state storage. Opt. Commun. 266, 720–726 (2006).
Barradas, N. P., Jeynes, C. & Webb, R. P. Simulated annealing analysis of Rutherford backscattering data. Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 291–293 (1997).
Polman, A., Jacobson, D. C., Eaglesham, D. J., Kistler, R. C. & Poate, J. M. Optical doping of waveguide materials by MeV Er implantation. J. Appl. Phys. 70, 3778–3784 (1991).
The authors thank M.P. van Exter for scientific discussions and proofreading of the manuscript, and A.M.J. den Haan, J.J.T. Wagenaar, M. de Wit and T.H. Oosterkamp for operating the dilution refrigerator. This work is part of the research programme of the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), which is part of the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO). This work was supported by NWO VICI grant no. 680-47-604, NSF DMR-0960331, NSF PHY-1206118, DARPA MTO under EPHI contract HR0011-12-C-0006 and the Fund for Scientific Research–Flanders (FWO).
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
About this article
Cite this article
Ding, D., Pereira, L., Bauters, J. et al. Multidimensional Purcell effect in an ytterbium-doped ring resonator. Nature Photon 10, 385–388 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2016.72
Nano Letters (2020)
Colloidal quantum dots decorated micro-ring resonators for efficient integrated waveguides excitation
New Journal of Physics (2020)
Physical Review B (2020)
Science China Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy (2019)