Efficient perovskite light-emitting diodes featuring nanometre-sized crystallites

Abstract

Organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite materials are emerging as highly attractive semiconductors for use in optoelectronics. In addition to their use in photovoltaics, perovskites are promising for realizing light-emitting diodes (LEDs) due to their high colour purity, low non-radiative recombination rates and tunable bandgap. Here, we report highly efficient perovskite LEDs enabled through the formation of self-assembled, nanometre-sized crystallites. Large-group ammonium halides added to the perovskite precursor solution act as a surfactant that dramatically constrains the growth of 3D perovskite grains during film forming, producing crystallites with dimensions as small as 10 nm and film roughness of less than 1 nm. Coating these nanometre-sized perovskite grains with longer-chain organic cations yields highly efficient emitters, resulting in LEDs that operate with external quantum efficiencies of 10.4% for the methylammonium lead iodide system and 9.3% for the methylammonium lead bromide system, with significantly improved shelf and operational stability.

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Figure 1: Morphology and XRD study of I- and Br-perovskite films.
Figure 2: Absorption and PL of I- and Br-perovskite films.
Figure 3: Structure and energy diagram of perovskite LEDs.
Figure 4: Perovskite LED performance characterization.
Figure 5: Hysteresis and steady-state output of perovskite LEDs.

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Acknowledgements

We acknowledge a DARPA Young Faculty Award (award no. D15AP00093) for research funding. B.P.R. acknowledges the support of a DuPont Young Professor Award for research funding. R.A.K. acknowledges support from the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under grant no. DGE 1148900.

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Contributions

T.-W.K. and Z.X. designed the device structure. Z.X. performed the AFM, PL and absorption measurements, and fabricated the LEDs. R.A.K. developed the surfacted perovskite processing protocol, synthesized the precursors and helped to calculate grain size. L.Z. conducted the XRD and SEM measurements. N.L.T. and G.D.S conducted the TRPL and QY measurements. K.M.L. assisted with LED characterization. B.P.R. supervised the work. Z.X. and B.P.R. wrote the manuscript. All authors read and commented on the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Barry P. Rand.

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The authors declare no competing financial interests.

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Xiao, Z., Kerner, R., Zhao, L. et al. Efficient perovskite light-emitting diodes featuring nanometre-sized crystallites. Nature Photon 11, 108–115 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2016.269

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