Abstract

The study of the light–matter interaction at the quantum scale has been enabled by the cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED) architecture1, in which a quantum two-level system strongly couples to a single cavity mode. Originally implemented with atoms in optical cavities2,3, CQED effects are now also observed with artificial atoms in solid-state environments4,5,6. Such realizations of these systems exhibit fast dynamics, making them attractive candidates for devices including modulators and sources in high-throughput communications. However, these systems possess large photon out-coupling rates that obscure any quantum behaviour at large excitation powers. Here, we have used a self-homodyning7 interferometric technique that fully employs the complex mode structure of our nanofabricated cavity8,9,10 to observe a quantum phenomenon known as the dynamic Mollow triplet11. We expect this interference to facilitate the development of arbitrary on-chip quantum state generators, thereby strongly influencing quantum lithography, metrology and imaging.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1.

    & Cavity quantum electrodynamics. Phys. Today 42, 24 (January, 1989).

  2. 2.

    et al. Vacuum-stimulated cooling of single atoms in three dimensions. Nature Phys. 1, 122–125 (2005).

  3. 3.

    et al. Photon blockade in an optical cavity with one trapped atom. Nature 436, 87–90 (2005).

  4. 4.

    et al. A quantum dot single-photon turnstile device. Science 290, 2282–2285 (2000).

  5. 5.

    , , , & Indistinguishable photons from a single-photon device. Nature 419, 594–597 (2002).

  6. 6.

    et al. Coherent generation of non-classical light on a chip via photon-induced tunnelling and blockade. Nature Phys. 4, 859–863 (2008).

  7. 7.

    Statistical Methods in Quantum Optics (Springer, 2008).

  8. 8.

    , , & Modeling of Fano resonances in the reflectivity of photonic crystal cavities with finite spot size excitation. Opt. Express 21, 31336–31346 (2013).

  9. 9.

    et al. Light scattering and Fano resonances in high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities. Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 071101 (2009).

  10. 10.

    et al. Asymmetry tuning of Fano resonances in GaAs photonic crystal cavities. Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 111112 (2013).

  11. 11.

    , , & Resonance fluorescence from semiconductor quantum dots: beyond the Mollow triplet. Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 017401 (2012).

  12. 12.

    , & Photon antibunching in resonance fluorescence. Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 691–695 (1977).

  13. 13.

    , & Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference. Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044–2046 (1987).

  14. 14.

    Power spectrum of light scattered by two-level systems. Phys. Rev. 188, 1969–1975 (1969).

  15. 15.

    et al. Resonantly driven coherent oscillations in a solid-state quantum emitter. Nature Phys. 5, 203–207 (2009).

  16. 16.

    et al. Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity. Nature 432, 200–203 (2004).

  17. 17.

    et al. Strong coupling in a single quantum dot–semiconductor microcavity system. Nature 432, 197–200 (2004).

  18. 18.

    et al. Controlling cavity reflectivity with a single quantum dot. Nature 450, 857–861 (2007).

  19. 19.

    , , , & Climbing the Jaynes–Cummings ladder by photon counting. J. Nanophoton. 6, 061803 (2012).

  20. 20.

    Effects of configuration interaction on intensities and phase shifts. Phys. Rev. 124, 1866–1878 (1961).

  21. 21.

    , & Dynamic stark effect for the Jaynes-Cummings system. Phys. Rev. A 45, 5135–5143 (1992).

  22. 22.

    et al. Controlled phase shifts with a single quantum dot. Science 320, 769–772 (2008).

  23. 23.

    & Resonance fluorescence of an arbitrarily driven two-level atom. Phys. Rev. A 40, 3164–3178 (1989).

  24. 24.

    et al. Ultrafast polariton–phonon dynamics of strongly coupled quantum dot–nanocavity systems. Phys. Rev. X 5, 031006 (2015).

  25. 25.

    & Polaron master equation theory of the quantum-dot Mollow triplet in a semiconductor cavity–QED system. Phys. Rev. B 85, 115309 (2012).

  26. 26.

    Atom–Photon Interactions (Wiley, 2004).

  27. 27.

    , , , & Exciting polaritons with quantum light. Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 196402 (2015).

  28. 28.

    et al. Emitters of N-photon bundles. Nature Photon. 8, 550–555 (2014).

  29. 29.

    et al. Fano resonance control in a photonic crystal structure and its application to ultrafast switching. Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 061117 (2014).

  30. 30.

    , & Qutip: an open-source python framework for the dynamics of open quantum systems. Comput. Phys. Commun. 183, 1760–1772 (2012).

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge financial support from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the MURI Center for Multifunctional Light–Matter Interfaces based on Atoms and Solids, and support from the Army Research Office (grant no. W911NF1310309). K.A.F. acknowledges support from the Lu Stanford Graduate Fellowship and the National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship. K.M. acknowledges support from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation. A.Y.P. acknowledges support from the Bechtolsheim Stanford Graduate Fellowship. Y.A.K. acknowledges support from the Stanford Graduate Fellowship and the National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship. K.G.L. acknowledges support from the Swiss National Science Foundation.

Author information

Author notes

    • Kevin A. Fischer
    •  & Kai Müller

    These authors contributed equally to this work

Affiliations

  1. E.L. Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA

    • Kevin A. Fischer
    • , Kai Müller
    • , Armand Rundquist
    • , Tomas Sarmiento
    • , Alexander Y. Piggott
    • , Yousif Kelaita
    • , Constantin Dory
    • , Konstantinos G. Lagoudakis
    •  & Jelena Vučković

Authors

  1. Search for Kevin A. Fischer in:

  2. Search for Kai Müller in:

  3. Search for Armand Rundquist in:

  4. Search for Tomas Sarmiento in:

  5. Search for Alexander Y. Piggott in:

  6. Search for Yousif Kelaita in:

  7. Search for Constantin Dory in:

  8. Search for Konstantinos G. Lagoudakis in:

  9. Search for Jelena Vučković in:

Contributions

K.A.F. and K.M. conceived and performed the experiments. K.A.F. performed the theoretical work and modelling. A.R. fabricated the device. T.S. performed MBE growth of the QD structure. A.P., Y.A.K., C.D. and K.G.L. provided expertise. J.V. supervised the project. All authors participated in the discussion and understanding of the results.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Kevin A. Fischer or Jelena Vučković.

Supplementary information

PDF files

  1. 1.

    Supplementary information

    Supplementary information

About this article

Publication history

Received

Accepted

Published

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2015.276

Further reading