Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Ghost imaging in the time domain

Abstract

Ghost imaging is a novel technique that produces the image of an object by correlating the intensity of two light beams, neither of which independently carries information about the shape of the object1,2. Ghost imaging has opened up new perspectives to obtain highly resolved images3, even in the presence of noise and turbulence4. Here, by exploiting the duality between light propagation in space and time5, we demonstrate the temporal analogue of ghost imaging. We use a conventional fast detector that does not see the temporal ‘object’ to be characterized and a slow integrating ‘bucket’ detector that does see the object but without resolving its temporal structure. Our experiments achieve temporal resolution at the picosecond level and are insensitive to the temporal distortion that may occur after the object. The approach is scalable, can be integrated on-chip, and offers great promise for dynamic imaging of ultrafast waveforms.

This is a preview of subscription content

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

$32.00

All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1: Comparison of spatial and temporal ghost imaging experimental set-ups.
Figure 2: Measured intensity fluctuations of the multimode laser source.
Figure 3: Comparison of ghost image and direct image measured with the fast detector.
Figure 4: Ghost image as a function of number of realizations and effective fluctuation time.
Figure 5: Comparison of ghost image and direct image in the presence of strong dispersion experienced by the object when a multimode fibre is added between the EOM and the detector.

References

  1. Erkmen, B. I. & Shapiro, J. H. Ghost imaging: from quantum to classical to computational. Adv. Opt. Photon. 2, 405–450 (2010).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Bennink, R. S., Bentley, S. J., Boyd, R. W. & Howell, J. C. Quantum and classical coincidence imaging. Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 033601 (2004).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Ferri, F. et al. High-resolution ghost image and ghost diffraction experiments with thermal light. Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183602 (2005).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Meyers, R. E., Deacon, K. S. & Shih, Y. Turbulence-free ghost imaging. Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 111115 (2011).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Salem, R., Foster, M. A. & Gaeta, A. L. Application of space–time duality to ultrahigh-speed optical signal processing. Adv. Opt. Photon. 5, 274–317 (2013).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Klyshko, D. N. A simple method of preparing pure states of an optical field, of implementing the Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen experiment, and of demonstrating the complementarity principle. Sov. Phys. Usp. 31, 74–85 (1988).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Klyshko, D. N. Combine EPR and two-slit experiments: interference of advanced waves. Phys. Lett. A 132, 299–304 (1988).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Pittman, T. B., Shih, Y. H., Strekalov, D. V. & Sergienko, A. V. Optical imaging by means of two-photon quantum entanglement. Phys. Rev. A 52, R3429 (1995).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Abouraddy, A. F., Saleh, B. E. A., Sergienko, A. V. & Teich, M. C. Role of entanglement in two-photon imaging. Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 123602 (2001).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Bennink, R. S., Bentley, S. J. & Boyd, R. W. ‘Two-photon’ coincidence imaging with a classical source. Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113601 (2002).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Scarcelli, G., Berardi, V. & Shih, Y. Can two-photon correlation of chaotic light be considered as correlation of intensity fluctuations? Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063602 (2006).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Meyers, R., Deacon, K. S. & Shih, Y. Ghost-imaging experiment by measuring reflected photons. Phys. Rev. A 77, 041801 (2008).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Shirai, T., Setälä, T. & Friberg, A. T. Ghost imaging of phase objects with classical incoherent light. Phys. Rev. A 84, 041801 (2011).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Zhang, C., Guo, S., Cao, J., Guan, J. & Gao, F. Object reconstitution using pseudo-inverse for ghost imaging. Opt. Express 22, 30063–30073 (2014).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Karmakar, S., Meyers, R. & Shih, Y. Ghost imaging experiment with sunlight compared to laboratory experiment with thermal light. Proc. SPIE 8518, 851805 (2012).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Sun, B. et al. 3D computational imaging with single-pixel detectors. Science 330, 844–847 (2015).

    Google Scholar 

  17. Tournois, P. Analogie optique de la compression d'impulsions. C. R. Acad. Sci. III 258, 3839 (1964).

    Google Scholar 

  18. Kolner, B. H. & Nazarathy, M. Temporal imaging with a time lens. Opt. Lett. 14, 630–632 (1989).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Kolner, B. H. Space–time duality and the theory of temporal imaging. IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1951–1963 (1994).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Foster, M. A. et al. Silicon-chip-based ultrafast optical oscilloscope. Nature 456, 81–84 (2008).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Schröder, J. et al. Aberration-free ultra-fast optical oscilloscope using a four-wave mixing based time-lens. Opt. Commun. 283, 2611–2614 (2010).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Solli, D. R., Herink, G., Jalali, B. & Ropers, C. Fluctuations and correlations in modulation instability. Nature Photon. 6, 463–468 (2012).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Fridman, M., Farsi, A., Okawachi, Y. & Gaeta, A. L. Demonstration of temporal cloaking. Nature 481, 62–65 (2012).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Shirai, T., Setälä, T. & Friberg, A. T. Temporal ghost imaging with classical non-stationary pulsed light. J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 2549–2555 (2010).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Chen, Z., Li, H., Li, Y., Shi, J. & Zeng, G. Temporal ghost imaging with a chaotic laser. Opt. Eng. 52, 076103 (2013).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Soper, H. E. On the probable error of the correlation coefficient to a second approximation waveforms. Biometrika 9, 91–115 (1913).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Salem, R. et al. Optical time lens based on four-wave mixing on a silicon chip. Opt. Lett. 33, 1047–1049 (2008).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

G.G. and A.T.F. acknowledge support from the Academy of Finland (projects 267576 and 268480). J.M.D. acknowledges support from ERC project MULTIWAVE. The Optoelectronics Research Centre, Tampere University of Technology is also thanked for the loan of the pulse pattern generator.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

G.G. and A.T.F. conceived the original idea. P.R. and M.B. constructed the experimental set-up and conducted all the experiments. G.G. designed the experiments and supervised the project. P.R., M.B., J.M.D. and G.G. performed the data analysis. All authors discussed the results and contributed to writing the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Goëry Genty.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Supplementary information

Supplementary information

Supplementary Movie 1 (MOV 832 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ryczkowski, P., Barbier, M., Friberg, A. et al. Ghost imaging in the time domain. Nature Photon 10, 167–170 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2015.274

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2015.274

Further reading

Search

Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing