Article | Published:

High-gain infrared-to-visible upconversion light-emitting phototransistors

Nature Photonics volume 10, pages 129134 (2016) | Download Citation

Abstract

Infrared-to-visible upconversion devices made by integrating an infrared quantum dot photodetector with an organic light-emitting diode potentially offer a route to low-cost, pixel-free infrared imaging. However, making such devices sufficiently efficient for practical use is a challenge. Here, we report a high-gain vertical phototransistor with a perforated metallic source electrode having an EQE up to 1 × 105% and a detectivity of 1.2 × 1013 Jones. By incorporating a phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode in this phototransistor, an infrared-to-visible upconversion LEPT with a photon-to-photon conversion efficiency of over 1,000% is demonstrated.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1.

    et al. Hybrid organic/inorganic optical up-converter for pixel-less near-infrared imaging. Adv. Mater. 24, 3138–3142 (2012).

  2. 2.

    , , & Pixelless infrared imaging utilizing a p-type quantum well infrared photodetector integrated with a light emitting diode. Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2784–2786 (1997).

  3. 3.

    , , , & Organic infrared upconversion device. Adv. Mater. 22, 2260 (2010).

  4. 4.

    et al. PbSe nanocrystal-based infrared-to-visible up-conversion device. Nano. Lett. 11, 2109–2113 (2011).

  5. 5.

    , , , & Multi-spectral imaging with infrared sensitive organic light emitting diode. Sci. Rep. 4, 5946 (2014).

  6. 6.

    & A near infrared organic photodiode with gain at low bias voltage. Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 263302 (2009).

  7. 7.

    et al. Photodetectors based on graphene, other two-dimensional materials and hybrid systems. Nature Nanotech. 9, 780–793 (2014).

  8. 8.

    et al. Infrared photodetectors based on CVD-grown graphene and PbS quantum dots with ultrahigh responsivity. Adv. Mater. 24, 5878–5883 (2012).

  9. 9.

    et al. Ultrasensitive solution-cast quantum dot photodetectors. Nature 442, 180–183 (2006).

  10. 10.

    et al. Hybrid graphene–quantum dot phototransistors with ultrahigh gain. Nature Nanotech. 7, 363–368 (2012).

  11. 11.

    & Very-high-efficiency double-heterostructure copper phthalocyanine/C60 photovoltaic cells. Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 126–128 (2001).

  12. 12.

    & Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, 2006).

  13. 13.

    & Infrared colloidal quantum dots for photovoltaics: fundamentals and recent progress. Adv. Mater. 23, 12–29 (2011).

  14. 14.

    Infrared quantum dots. Adv. Mater. 17, 515–522 (2005).

  15. 15.

    et al. High-efficiency and low-voltage p–i–n electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with double-emission layers. Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3911–3913 (2004).

  16. 16.

    & The effect of C60 doping on the device performance of organic light-emitting diodes. Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063514 (2005).

  17. 17.

    , , & C60: a new form of carbon. Nature 347, 354–358 (1990).

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge financial support from Nanoholdings LLC. The experimental part of the work was carried out at the University of Florida.

Author information

Author notes

    • Doyoung Kim

    Present address: School of Materials Science and Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74106, USA

Affiliations

  1. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27606, USA

    • Hyeonggeun Yu
    • , Jaewoong Lee
    •  & Franky So
  2. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-6400, USA

    • Doyoung Kim
    • , Jinhyung Lee
    • , Sujin Baek
    •  & Rajiv Singh

Authors

  1. Search for Hyeonggeun Yu in:

  2. Search for Doyoung Kim in:

  3. Search for Jinhyung Lee in:

  4. Search for Sujin Baek in:

  5. Search for Jaewoong Lee in:

  6. Search for Rajiv Singh in:

  7. Search for Franky So in:

Contributions

F.S. conceived the device concept. H.Y. fabricated the devices. H.Y., D.Y.K. and F.S. designed the experiments and analysed the data. J.H.L., S.J.B. and R.S. contributed to the development of the photoactive gate part in the vertical transistors. J.W.L. contributed to the detectivity measurements.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Franky So.

Supplementary information

PDF files

  1. 1.

    Supplementary information

    Supplementary information

About this article

Publication history

Received

Accepted

Published

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2015.270

Further reading