Photonic integration has long been pursued, but remains immature compared with electronics. Nanophotonics is expected to change this situation. However, despite the recent success of nanophotonic devices, there has been no demonstration of large-scale integration. Here, we describe the large-scale and dense integration of optical memories in a photonic crystal chip. To achieve this, we introduce a wavelength-addressable serial integration scheme using a simple cavity-optimization rule. We fully exploit the wavelength-division-multiplexing capability, which is the most important advantage of photonics over electronics, and achieve an extremely large wavelength-channel density. This is the first demonstration of the large-scale photonic integration of nanophotonic devices coupled to waveguides in a single chip, and also the first dense wavelength-division-multiplexing nanophotonic devices other than filters. This work paves the way for optical random-access memories and for a large-scale wavelength-division-multiplexing photonic network-on-chip.
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $14.08 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Rent or Buy article
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Shacham, A., Bergman, K. & Carloni, L. P. Photonic networks-on-chip for future generations of chip multiprocessors. IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246–1260 (2008).
Notomi, M. et al. Low-power nanophotonic devices based on photonic crystals towards dense photonic network on chip. IET Circ. Dev. Syst. 5, 84–93 (2011).
Soljačić, M. & Joannopoulos, J. D. Enhancement of nonlinear effects using photonic crystals. Nature Mater. 3, 211–219 (2004).
Khajavikhan, M. et al. Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers. Nature 482, 204–207 (2012).
Takeda, K. et al. Few-fJ/bit data transmissions using directly modulated lambda-scale embedded active region photonic-crystal lasers. Nature Photon. 7, 569–575 (2013).
Tang, L. et al. Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna. Nature Photon. 2, 226–229 (2008).
Tanabe, T., Sumikura, H., Taniyama, H., Shinya, A. & Notomi, M. All-silicon sub-Gb/s telecom detector with low dark current and high quantum efficiency on chip. Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 101103 (2010).
Knight, M. W., Sobhani, H., Nordlander, P. & Halas, N. J. Photodetection with active optical antennas. Science 332, 702–704 (2011).
Nozaki, K. et al. Sub-femtojoule all-optical switching using a photonic-crystal nanocavity. Nature Photon. 4, 477–483 (2010).
Husko, C. et al. Ultrafast all-optical modulation in GaAs photonic crystal cavities. Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 021111 (2009).
Hill, M. T. et al. A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers. Nature 432, 206–209 (2004).
Liu, L. et al. An ultra-small, low-power, all-optical flip-flop memory on a silicon chip. Nature Photon. 4, 182–187 (2010).
Nozaki, K. et al. Ultralow-power all-optical RAM based on nanocavities. Nature Photon. 6, 248–252 (2012).
Notomi, M., Kuramochi, E. & Tanabe, T. Large-scale arrays of ultrahigh-Q coupled nanocavities. Nature Photon. 2, 741–747 (2008).
Matsuda, N. et al. Slow light enhanced correlated photon pair generation in photonic-crystal coupled-resonator optical waveguides. Opt. Express 21, 8596–8604 (2013).
Sun, J., Timurdogan, E., Yaacobi, A., Hosseini, E. S. & Watts, M. R. Large-scale nanophotonic phased array. Nature 493, 195–199 (2013).
Tanabe, T., Notomi, M., Mitsugi, S., Shinya, A. & Kuramochi, E. Fast bistable all-optical switch and memory on a silicon photonic crystal on-chip. Opt. Lett. 30, 2575–2577 (2005).
Kuramochi, E. et al. Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect. Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041112 (2006).
Song, B.-S., Noda, S. & Asano, T. Photonic devices based on in-plane hetero photonic crystals. Science 300, 1537 (2003)
Armani, D. K., Kippenberg, T. J., Spillane, S. M. & Vahala, K. J. Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip. Nature 421, 925–928 (2003).
Notomi, M. Manipulating light with strongly modulated photonic crystals. Rep. Prog. Phys. 73, 096501 (2010).
Akahane, Y., Asano, T., Song, B.-S. & Noda, S. High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal. Nature 425, 944–947 (2003).
Nakamura, T. et al. How to design higher-Q photonic crystal nanocavity (2) in The 72nd Autumn Meeting of the Japan Society of Applied Physics, Yamagata, Japan, paper 31a-ZR-2 (2011).
Akahane, Y., Asano, T., Song, B.-S. & Noda, S. Fine-tuned high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity. Opt. Express 13, 1202–1214 (2005).
Ota, Y. et al. Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot embedded in a H1 photonic crystal nanocavity. Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 033102 (2009).
Matsuo, S. et al. High-speed ultracompact buried heterostructure photonic-crystal laser with 13 fJ of energy consumed per bit transmitted. Nature Photon. 4, 648–654 (2010).
Takano, H., Song, B.-S., Asano, T. & Noda, S. Highly efficient multi-channel drop filter in a two-dimensional hetero photonic crystal. Opt. Express 14, 3491–3496 (2006).
Shinya, A., Mitsugi, S., Kuramochi, E. & Notomi, M. Ultrasmall multi-port channel drop filter in two-dimensional photonic crystal on silicon-on-insulator substrate. Opt. Express 14, 12394–12400 (2006).
Hennessy, K., Högerle, C., Hu, E., Badolato, A. & Imamoğlu, A. Tuning photonic nanocavities by atomic force microscope nano-oxidation. Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041118 (2006).
Faraon, A. et al. Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses. Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 043123 (2008).
Lee, H. S. et al. Local tuning of photonic crystal nanocavity modes by laser-assisted oxidation. Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 191109 (2009).
Yokoo, A., Tanabe, T., Kuramochi, E. & Notomi, M. Ultrahigh-Q nanocavities written with a nanoprobe. Nano Lett. 11, 3634–3642 (2011).
The authors thank T. Tamamura, H. Onji, S. Fujiura and Y. Shouji for their support in fabricating the device, H. Onji and S. Fujiura for their support in measuring the devices, and T. Sogawa and Y. Tokura for their continuous encouragement.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
About this article
Cite this article
Kuramochi, E., Nozaki, K., Shinya, A. et al. Large-scale integration of wavelength-addressable all-optical memories on a photonic crystal chip. Nature Photon 8, 474–481 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2014.93
Superlattices and Microstructures (2020)
Integrated outstanding precision and mechanical performance of transparent 3D photonic crystal devices employing cross-linked nanospheres via thermoforming in a rubbery state
Journal of Materials Chemistry C (2020)
Light: Science & Applications (2020)
Advanced Quantum Technologies (2020)
Optics & Laser Technology (2020)