Abstract

Optical frequency combs have the potential to revolutionize terabit communications1. The generation of Kerr combs in nonlinear microresonators2 is particularly promising3, enabling line spacings of tens of gigahertz. However, such combs may exhibit strong phase noise4,5,6, which has made high-speed data transmission impossible up to now. Here, we demonstrate that systematic adjustment of the pump conditions for low phase noise4,7,8,9 enables coherent data transmission with advanced modulation formats that pose stringent requirements on the spectral purity of the comb. In a first experiment, we encode a data stream of 392 Gbit s−1 on a Kerr comb using quadrature phase-shift keying and 16-state quadrature amplitude modulation. A second experiment demonstrates feedback stabilization of the comb and transmission of a 1.44 Tbit s–1 data stream over up to 300 km. The results show that Kerr combs meet the highly demanding requirements of coherent communications and thus offer an attractive route towards chip-scale terabit-per-second transceivers.

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the European Research Council (ERC starting grant ‘EnTeraPIC’, no. 280145), the Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach Foundation, the Helmholtz International Research School for Teratronics (HIRST), the EU-FP7 project BigPipes, the Initiative and Networking Fund of the Helmholtz Association, the Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN) of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) (project A 4.8), the DFG Major Research Instrumentation Programme, the Karlsruhe Nano-Micro Facility (KNMF), the Karlsruhe School of Optics & Photonics (KSOP), the Swiss National Science Foundation (NCCR Nano-Tera, NTF MCOMB), the Marie Curie IAPP Action, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) via the QuASAR programme and the European Space Agency (ESA) via a doctoral fellowship (to V.B.). Samples were fabricated at the EPFL Center for Micro- and Nanotechnology (CMi).

Author information

Author notes

    • David Hillerkuss
    •  & Juerg Leuthold

    Present address: Electromagnetic Fields & Microwave Electronics Laboratory (IFH), ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland

Affiliations

  1. Institute of Photonics and Quantum Electronics (IPQ) and Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany

    • Joerg Pfeifle
    • , Matthias Lauermann
    • , Yimin Yu
    • , Daniel Wegner
    • , Philipp Schindler
    • , Jingshi Li
    • , David Hillerkuss
    • , Rene Schmogrow
    • , Claudius Weimann
    • , Wolfgang Freude
    • , Juerg Leuthold
    •  & Christian Koos
  2. École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland

    • Victor Brasch
    • , Tobias Herr
    •  & Tobias J. Kippenberg
  3. Menlo Systems GmbH, 82152 Martinsried, Germany

    • Klaus Hartinger
    •  & Ronald Holzwarth

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Contributions

J.P. conceived and performed the data transmission experiments and analysed the data. V.B. and K.H. conceived, designed and fabricated the devices, which were characterized jointly by V.B. and T.H. M.L., Y.Y., D.W., P.S. and C.W. performed the data transmission experiments and analysed the data. The feedback stabilization of the comb source for the second experiment was implemented jointly by J.P. and Y.Y. J.Li, D.H. and R.S. contributed subsystems to the data transmission experiments. The project was supervised by R.H., W.F., J.L., T.J.K. and C.K. T.J.K. conceived and supervised the comb generation scheme and fabrication of the devices, C.K. conceived the data transmission and comb stabilization schemes and supervised the experiments. All authors discussed the data and wrote the manuscript jointly.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Tobias J. Kippenberg or Christian Koos.

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Published

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2014.57

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