Mapping of human brain function has revolutionized systems neuroscience. However, traditional functional neuroimaging by positron emission tomography or functional magnetic resonance imaging cannot be used when applications require portability, or are contraindicated because of ionizing radiation (positron emission tomography) or implanted metal (functional magnetic resonance imaging). Optical neuroimaging offers a non-invasive alternative that is radiation free and compatible with implanted metal and electronic devices (for example, pacemakers). However, optical imaging technology has heretofore lacked the combination of spatial resolution and wide field of view sufficient to map distributed brain functions. Here, we present a high-density diffuse optical tomography imaging array that can map higher-order, distributed brain function. The system was tested by imaging four hierarchical language tasks and multiple resting-state networks including the dorsal attention and default mode networks. Finally, we imaged brain function in patients with Parkinson's disease and implanted deep brain stimulators that preclude functional magnetic resonance imaging.
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The authors thank G. Perry and M. Olevitch for help with HD-DOT instrumentation and software, F. Miezin for setting up the MRI sequences, D. Dierker for help and patience with FreeSurfer software, and T. Nolan for assistance with MRI data acquisition. The authors also thank B. White for helpful discussion of the manuscript. This work was supported in part by the National Institutes of Health (NIH, grants R01-EB009233 (J.P.C.), R01-NS078223 (J.P.C.), T32-NS007205-30 (A.R.V) and P30-NS048056 (A.Z.S.)), an Autism Speaks Postdoctoral Translational Research Fellowship 7962 (A.T.E.), a Fulbright Science and Technology PhD Award (S.L.F.) and a McDonnell Centre for Systems Neuroscience grant (A.R.V., J.P.C. and T.H.). The funding source had no involvement in the study design, collection, analysis, interpretation of the data, writing of the paper, or the decision to submit the paper for publication.
J.P.C. and Washington University have financial interests in Cephalogics LLC based on a licence of related optical imaging technology by the University to Cephalogics LLC.
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Eggebrecht, A., Ferradal, S., Robichaux-Viehoever, A. et al. Mapping distributed brain function and networks with diffuse optical tomography. Nature Photon 8, 448–454 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2014.107
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