The unique linear and massless band structure of graphene in a purely two-dimensional Dirac fermionic structure has led to intense research in fields ranging from condensed matter physics to nanoscale device applications covering the electrical, thermal, mechanical and optical domains. Here, we report three consecutive first observations in graphene–silicon hybrid optoelectronic devices—ultralow-power resonant optical bistability, self-induced regenerative oscillations and coherent four-wave mixing—all at few-femtojoule cavity recirculating energies. These observations, in comparison with control measurements on solely monolithic silicon cavities, are enabled only by the dramatically large and ultrafast χ(3) nonlinearities in graphene and the large Q/V ratios in wavelength-localized photonic crystal cavities. These third-order nonlinear results demonstrate the feasibility and versatility of hybrid two-dimensional graphene–silicon nanophotonic devices for next-generation chip-scale high-speed optical communications, radiofrequency optoelectronics and all-optical signal processing.
This is a preview of subscription content
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $8.25 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Xu, Q., Schmidt, B., Pradhan, S. & Lipson, M. Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator. Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).
Liu, A. et al. A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal–oxide–semiconductor capacitor. Nature 427, 615–618 (2005).
Liu, J. et al. Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators. Nature Photon. 2, 433–437 (2008).
Kuo, Y.-H. et al. Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon. Nature 437, 1334–1336 (2005).
Assefa, S., Xia, F. & Vlasov, Y. A. Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects. Nature 464, 80–84 (2010).
Kang, Y. et al. Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product. Nature Photon. 3, 59–63 (2009).
Biberman, A. et al. First demonstration of long-haul transmission using silicon microring modulators. Opt. Express 18, 15544–15552 (2010).
Pelusi, M. et al. Photonic-chip-based radio-frequency spectrum analyser with terahertz bandwidth. Nature Photon. 3, 139–143 (2009).
Colman, P. et al. Temporal solitons and pulse compression in photonic crystal waveguides. Nature Photon. 4, 862–868 (2010).
Morichetti, F. et al. Travelling-wave resonant four-wave mixing breaks the limits of cavity-enhanced all-optical wavelength conversion. Nature Commun. 2, 296 (2011).
Foster, M. et al. Silicon-chip-based ultrafast optical oscilloscope. Nature 456, 81–84 (2008).
Pasquazi, A. M. et al. Sub-picosecond phase-sensitive optical pulse characterization on a chip. Nature Photon. 5, 618–623 (2011).
Zhang, Y., Tan, Y.-W., Stormer, H. L. & Kim, P. Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry's phase in graphene. Nature 438, 201–204 (2005).
Geim, A. K. & Novoselov, K. S. The rise of graphene. Nature Mater. 6, 183–191 (2007).
Du, X. et al. Fractional quantum Hall effect and insulating phase of Dirac electrons in graphene. Nature 462, 192–195 (2009).
Dean, C. R. et al. Multicomponent fractional quantum Hall effect in graphene. Nature Phys. 7, 693–696 (2011).
Berger, C. et al. Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned epitaxial graphene. Science 312, 1191–1196 (2006).
Meric, I. et al. Current saturation in zero-bandgap, top-gated graphene field-effect transistors. Nature Nanotech. 3, 654–659 (2008).
Lin, Y.-M. et al. 100-GHz transistors from wafer-scale epitaxial graphene. Science 327, 662 (2010).
Seol, J. H. et al. Two-dimensional phonon transport in supported graphene. Science 328, 213–216 (2010).
Gabor, N. M. et al. Hot carrier-assisted intrinsic photoresponse in graphene. Science 334, 648–652 (2011).
Lee, C., Wei, X., Kysar, J. W. & Hone, J. Measurement of the elastic properties and intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene. Science 321, 385–388 (2008).
Bonaccorso, F., Sun, Z., Hasan, T. & Ferrari, A. C. Graphene photonics and optoelectronics. Nature Photon. 4, 611–622 (2010).
Chen, C.-F. et al. Controlling inelastic light scattering quantum pathways in graphene. Nature 471, 617–620 (2011).
Wang, F. et al. Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene. Science 320, 206–209 (2008).
Li, Z. Q. et al. Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy. Nature Phys. 4, 532–535 (2008).
Liu, M. et al. A graphene-based broadband optical modulator. Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
Mueller, T., Xia, F. & Avouris, P. Graphene photodetectors for high-speed optical communications. Nature Photon. 4, 297–301 (2010).
Xia, F. et al. Ultrafast graphene photodetector. Nature Nanotech. 4, 839–843 (2009).
Engel, M. et al. Light–matter interaction in a microcavity-controlled graphene transistor. Nature Commun. 3, 906 (2012).
Furchi, M. et al. Microcavity-integrated graphene photodetector. Nano Lett. 12, 2773–2777 (2012).
Sun, Z. et al. Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser. ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
Hendry, E. et al. Coherent nonlinear optical response of graphene. Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 097401 (2010).
Li, X. et al. Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils. Science 324, 1312–1314 (2009).
Bae, S. et al. Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes. Nature Nanotech. 5, 574–578 (2010).
Lin, Y.-M. et al. Wafer-scale graphene integrated circuit. Science 332, 1294–1297 (2011).
Akahane, Y., Asano, T., Song, B. & Noda S. High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal. Nature 425, 944–947 (2003).
Yang, X., Yu, M., Kwong, D.-L. & Wong, C. W. All-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency in multiple coupled photonic crystal cavities. Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 173902 (2009).
Dean, C. R. et al. Boron nitride substrate for high-quality graphene electronics. Nature Nanotech. 5, 722–726 (2010).
Petrone, N. et al. High-mobility scalable graphene by large-grain chemical vapor deposition growth. Nano Lett. 12, 2751–2756 (2012).
Zhao, W., Tan, P. H., Liu, J. & Ferrari, A. C., Intercalation of few-layer graphite flakes with FeCl3: Raman determination of Fermi level, layer by layer decoupling and stability. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 5941–5946 (2011).
Jablan, M., Buljan, H. & Soljačić, M. Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies. Phys. Rev. B 80, 245435 (2009).
Bao, Q. et al. Broadband graphene polarizer. Nature Photon. 5, 411–415 (2011).
Armaroli, A. et al. Oscillatory dynamics in nanocavities with noninstantaneous Kerr response. Phys. Rev. A 84, 053816 (2011).
Johnson, T. J., Borselli, M. & Painter, O. Self-induced optical modulation of the transmission through a high-Q silicon microdisk resonator. Opt. Express 14, 817–831 (2006).
The authors acknowledge valuable discussions with T.F. Heinz, as well as helpful suggestions from A. Gondarenko, F. Gesuele, Y. Li, J. Lui and J. Yang. The authors acknowledge funding support from NSF IGERT (DGE-1069240) and the Center for Re-Defining Photovoltaic Efficiency through Molecule Scale Control, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (award no. DE-SC0001085).
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
About this article
Cite this article
Gu, T., Petrone, N., McMillan, J. et al. Regenerative oscillation and four-wave mixing in graphene optoelectronics. Nature Photon 6, 554–559 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2012.147
Controlling the threshold voltage of a semiconductor field-effect transistor by gating its graphene gate
npj 2D Materials and Applications (2022)
Nano Research (2022)
International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy and Materials (2022)
Light: Science & Applications (2021)
Dynamical evolution of anisotropic response of type-II Weyl semimetal TaIrTe4 under ultrafast photoexcitation
Light: Science & Applications (2021)