A planar dielectric antenna for directional single-photon emission and near-unity collection efficiency

Abstract

Single emitters have been considered as sources of single photons in various contexts, including cryptography, quantum computation, spectroscopy and metrology1,2,3. The success of these applications will crucially rely on the efficient directional emission of photons into well-defined modes. To accomplish high efficiency, researchers have investigated microcavities at cryogenic temperatures4,5, photonic nanowires6,7 and near-field coupling to metallic nano-antennas8,9,10. However, despite impressive progress, the existing realizations substantially fall short of unity collection efficiency. Here, we report on a theoretical and experimental study of a dielectric planar antenna, which uses a layered structure to tailor the angular emission of a single oriented molecule. We demonstrate a collection efficiency of 96% using a microscope objective at room temperature and obtain record detection rates of 50 MHz. Our scheme is wavelength-insensitive and can be readily extended to other solid-state emitters such as colour centres11,12 and semiconductor quantum dots13,14.

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Figure 1: Emission properties of a vertically oriented dipole close to a dielectric planar antenna.
Figure 2: Photophysics of the single-photon source.
Figure 3: Angular distribution of the emission.

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Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge financial support from the Swiss National Foundation (SNF) and ETH Zurich (QSIT). Thanks also go to M. Agio and G. Zumofen for helpful discussions and E. Ikonen for fruitful exchange regarding the potential of single-photon sources for metrology.

Author information

K.G.L. and H.E. performed the experiments reported here. P.K., R.L. and K.G.L. suggested and performed the first experiments. X.W.C. suggested the use of layered structures and performed the calculations. A.R., S.G. and V.S. supervised the project. S.G. and V.S. wrote the paper.

Correspondence to S. Götzinger.

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The authors declare no competing financial interests.

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Lee, K., Chen, X., Eghlidi, H. et al. A planar dielectric antenna for directional single-photon emission and near-unity collection efficiency. Nature Photon 5, 166–169 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2010.312

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