All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems

Article metrics

Abstract

Fibre-optic communications systems have traditionally carried data using binary (on−off) encoding of the light amplitude. However, next-generation systems will use both the amplitude and phase of the optical carrier to achieve higher spectral efficiencies and thus higher overall data capacities1,2. Although this approach requires highly complex transmitters and receivers, the increased capacity and many further practical benefits that accrue from a full knowledge of the amplitude and phase of the optical field3 more than outweigh this additional hardware complexity and can greatly simplify optical network design. However, use of the complex optical field gives rise to a new dominant limitation to system performance—nonlinear phase noise4,5. Developing a device to remove this noise is therefore of great technical importance. Here, we report the development of the first practical (‘black-box’) all-optical regenerator capable of removing both phase and amplitude noise from binary phase-encoded optical communications signals.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1: Operation of phase-insensitive and phase-sensitive amplifiers.
Figure 2: Experimental set-up.
Figure 3: Demodulated eye diagrams after balanced detection and differential constellation diagrams (showing bit-to-bit phase changes) measured at 10 Gbit s−1.
Figure 4: BER curves and corresponding eye diagrams.

References

  1. 1

    Gnauck, H. A. & Winzer P. J. Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission. J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 115–130 (2005).

  2. 2

    Xu, C., Liu X. & Wei, X. Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral efficiency optical transmissions. IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 281–293 (2004).

  3. 3

    Savory, S. J, Gavioli, G., Killey, R. I. & Bayvel, P. Electronic compensation of chromatic dispersion using a digital coherent receiver. Opt. Express 15, 2120–2126 (2007).

  4. 4

    Gordon, J. P. & Mollenauer, L. F. Phase noise in photonic communications systems using linear amplifiers. Opt. Lett. 15, 1351–1353 (1990).

  5. 5

    Demir, A. Nonlinear phase noise in optical-fiber-communication systems. J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 2002–2031 (2007).

  6. 6

    Xu, J. et al. Reconfigurable all-optical logic gates for multi-input differential phase-shift keying signals: design and experiments. J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 5268–5275 (2009).

  7. 7

    Xu, C. & Liu, X. Photonic analog-to-digital converter using soliton self-frequency shift and interleaving spectral filters. Opt. Lett. 28, 986–988 (2003).

  8. 8

    Tong, Z., Bogris, A., Karlsson, M. & Andrekson, P. A. Full characterization of the signal and idler noise figure spectra in single-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifiers. Opt. Express 18, 2884–2893 (2010).

  9. 9

    Yuen H. P. & Shapiro, J. H. Optical communication with two-photon coherent states. IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 24, 657–668 (1978).

  10. 10

    Goda, K. et al. A quantum-enhanced prototype gravitational-wave detector. Nature Phys. 4, 472–476 (2008).

  11. 11

    Cvecek, K. et al. Phase-preserving amplitude regeneration for a WDM RZ-DPSK signal using a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror. Opt. Express 16, 1923–1928 (2008).

  12. 12

    Matsumoto, M. & Sanuki, K. Performance improvement of DPSK signal transmission by a phase-preserving amplitude limiter. Opt. Express 15, 8094–8103 (2007).

  13. 13

    Matsumoto, M. & Sakaguchi, H. DPSK signal regeneration using a fiber-based amplitude regenerator. Opt. Express 16, 11169–11175 (2008).

  14. 14

    Croussore, K., Kim, I., Kim, Ch., Han, Y. & Li, G. Phase-and-amplitude regeneration of differential phase-shift keyed signals using a phase-sensitive amplifier. Opt. Express 14, 2085–2094 (2006).

  15. 15

    Levandovsky, D., Vasilyev, M. & Kumar, P. Amplitude squeezing of light by means of a phase-sensitive fiber parametric amplifier. Opt. Lett. 24, 984–986 (1999).

  16. 16

    Croussore, K. & Li, G. Phase regeneration of NRZ-DPSK signals based on symmetric-pump phase-sensitive amplification. IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 19, 864–866 (2007).

  17. 17

    Zhenga, Z., Ana, L., Lia, Z., Zhaoa, X. & Liu, X. All-optical regeneration of DQPSK/QPSK signals based on phase-sensitive amplification. Opt. Commun. 281, 2755–2759 (2008).

  18. 18

    Kim, I., Crussore, K., Li, X. & Li, G. All-optical carrier synchronization using a phase-sensitive oscillator. IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 19, 987–989 (2007).

  19. 19

    Parmigiani, F. et al. All-optical phase regeneration of 40 Gbit/s DPSK signals in a black-box phase sensitive amplifier. In Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference paper PDPC3 (OFC/NFOEC 2010, San Diego) (Optical Society of America, 2010).

  20. 20

    Lu, G.-W. & Miyazaki, T. Optical phase add/drop for format conversion between DQPSK and DPSK and its application in optical label switching systems. IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 21, 322–324 (2009).

  21. 21

    Morgensen, F., Olesen, H. & Jacobsen, G. Locking conditions and stability properties for a semiconductor laser with external light injection. IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 784–793 (1985).

  22. 22

    Nagarajan, R. et al. Large-scale photonic integrated circuits. IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 50–65 (2005).

  23. 23

    Sjödin, M., Johannisson, P., Sköld, M., Karlsson, M. & Andrekson, P. A. Cancellation of SPM in self-homodyne coherent systems. In Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communications paper We8.4.5 (ECOC 2009, Vienna) (VDE Verlag GmbH, 2009).

  24. 24

    Sköld, M. et al. Constellation diagram analysis of DPSK signal regeneration in a saturated parametric amplifier. Opt. Express 16, 5974–5982 (2008).

  25. 25

    Phelan, R. et al. –40 °C < T < 95 °C mode-hop-free operation of uncooled AlGaInAs-MQW discrete-mode laser diode with emission at λ = 1.3 µm. Electron. Lett. 45, 43–45 (2009).

  26. 26

    Weerasuriya, R. et al. Generation of frequency symmetric signals from a BPSK input for phase sensitive amplification. In Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference paper OWT6 (OFC/NFOEC 2010, San Diego) (Optical Society of America, 2010).

Download references

Acknowledgements

This research has received funding from the European Communities Seventh Framework Programme FP/2007-2013 under grant agreements 224547 (PHASORS) and 216863 (BONE), and Science Foundation Ireland under grant agreement 06/IN/1969.

Author information

R.S., F.P. and J.K. contributed equally to this work. R.S., F.P. and J.K. designed, built and accessed the regenerator. R.S., F.P., J.K., R.W., S.S. and A.D.E. contributed to the design and implementation of the carrier recovery unit. C.L., M.S. and P.A.A. built and performed constellation analysis. L.G.-N., D.J., S.H. and S.D. took part in various stages of the design, fabrication and characterization of the highly nonlinear fibres. R.P. and J.O. manufactured the semiconductor slave laser. A.B. contributed to theoretical analysis. P.A.A., A.D.E., L.G.N., J.O., D.S. and P.P. co-managed the work. D.J.R. provided overall technical leadership for the research.

Correspondence to Radan Slavík.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Slavík, R., Parmigiani, F., Kakande, J. et al. All-optical phase and amplitude regenerator for next-generation telecommunications systems. Nature Photon 4, 690–695 (2010) doi:10.1038/nphoton.2010.203

Download citation

Further reading