Ultraviolet enhancement cavity for ultrafast nonlinear optics and high-rate multiphoton entanglement experiments

Abstract

Ultrafast, ultraviolet light pulses are a key tool for spectroscopic studies (for example, molecular formation1,2 and carrier dynamics in semiconductors3) as well as a source for non-classical states of light4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13. The power required for many nonlinear processes makes amplifier systems mandatory, which significantly reduces the available repetition rate and thus often lengthens the experimental acquisition time. Here we adopt techniques recently developed for the infrared regime14,15,16 to design the first enhancement cavity for femtosecond ultraviolet pulses. An average ultraviolet power of more than 7 W at a repetition rate of 81 MHz is now available to pump a nonlinear crystal inside the cavity, applied here to implement a powerful source for high-rate experiments with entangled multiphoton states. The field enhancement enables a new scale of experiments in photonic quantum logic and in nonlinear optics research, for example, to operate optical parametric amplifiers at high repetition rates or to create high-harmonic-frequency combs14,15,16.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1: Schematic experimental set-up.
Figure 2: UV spectra and power enhancement.
Figure 3: Count rate statistics in dependence on the average UV pump power circulating in the cavity.

References

  1. 1

    Schrader, T. E. et al. Light-triggered β-hairpin folding and unfolding. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 15729–15734 (2007).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Schriever, C., Lochbrunner, S., Riedle, E. & Nesbitt, D. J. Ultrasensitive ultraviolet-visible 20 fs absorption spectroscopy of low vapor pressure molecules in the gas phase. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 013107 (2008).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    Choi, C. K., Kwon, Y. H., Krasinski, J. S., Setlur, G. & Song, J. J. Ultrafast carrier dynamics in a highly excited GaN epilayer. Phys. Rev. B 63, 115315 (2001).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    Bouwmeester, D., Pan, J.-W., Daniell, M., Weinfurter, H. & Zeilinger, A. Observation of three-photon Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger entanglement. Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1345–1349 (1999).

    ADS  MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Kiesel, N., Schmid, C., Tóth, G., Solano, E. & Weinfurter, H. Experimental observation of four-photon entangled Dicke state with high fidelity. Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 063604 (2007).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    Lu, C.-Y. et al. Experimental entanglement of six photons in graph states. Nature Phys. 3, 91–95 (2007).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    Wieczorek, W., Schmid, C., Kiesel, N., Pohlner, R., Gühne, O. & Weinfurter, H. Experimental observation of an entire family of four-photon entangled states. Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 010503 (2008).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    Prevedel, R. et al. Experimental realization of Dicke states of up to six qubits for multiparty quantum networking. Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 020503 (2009).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    Wieczorek, W., Krischek, R., Kiesel, N., Michelberger, P., Tóth, G. & Weinfurter, H. Experimental entanglement of a six-photon symmetric Dicke state. Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 020504 (2009).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    Walther, P. et al. Experimental one-way quantum computing. Nature 434, 169–176 (2005).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    Zhao, Z., Chen, Y.-A., Zhang, A.-N., Yang, T., Briegel, H. J. & Pan, J.-W. Experimental demonstration of five-photon entanglement and open-destination teleportation. Nature 430, 54–58 (2004).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12

    Lanyon, B. P. et al. Experimental demonstration of Shor's algorithm with quantum entanglement. Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 250505 (2007).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    Rådmark, M., Żukowski, M. & Bourennane, M. Experimental test of fidelity limits in six-photon interferometry and of rotational invariance properties of the photonic six-qubit entanglement singlet state. Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 150501 (2009).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14

    Jones, J. R., Moll, K. D., Thorpe, M. J. & Ye, J. Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity. Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193201 (2005).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15

    Gohle, C. et al. A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet. Nature 436, 234–237 (2005).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16

    Ozawa, A. et al. High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy. Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 253901 (2008).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17

    Yanovsky, V. P. & Wise, F. W. Frequency doubling of 100-fs pulses with 50% efficiency by use of a resonant enhancement cavity. Opt. Lett. 19, 1952–1954 (1994).

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18

    Udem, T., Holzwarth, R. & Hänsch, T. W. Optical frequency metrology. Nature 416, 233–237 (2002).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19

    Eisenberg, H. S., Khoury, G., Durkin, G. A., Simon, C. & Bouwmeester, D. Quantum entanglement of a large number of photons. Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 193901 (2004).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20

    U'Ren, A. B., Silberhorn, C., Banaszek, K. & Walmsley, I. A. Efficient conditional preparation of high-fidelity single photon states for fiber-optic quantum networks. Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 093601 (2004).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21

    Fulconis, J., Alibart, O., OBrien, J. L., Wadsworth, W. J. & Rarity, J. G. Nonclassical interference and entanglement generation using a photonic crystal fiber pair photon source. Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 120501 (2007).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22

    Li, X., Voss, P. L., Sharping, J. E. & Kumar, P. Optical-fiber source of polarization-entangled photons in the 1550 nm telecom band. Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053601 (2005).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23

    Fan, J., Migdall, A. & Wang, L. J. Efficient generation of correlated photon pairs in a microstructure fiber. Opt. Lett. 30, 3368–3370 (2005).

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24

    Hänsch, T. W. & Couillaud, B. Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity. Opt. Commun. 35, 441–444 (1980).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25

    Dicke, R. H. Coherence in spontaneous radiation processes. Phys. Rev. 93, 99–110 (1954).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26

    Achilles, D., Silberhorn, C., Śliwa, C., Banaszek, K. & Walmsley, I. A. Fiber-assisted detection with photon number resolution. Opt. Lett. 28, 2387–2389 (2003).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27

    Ou, Z. Y., Pereira, S. F., Kimble, H. J. & Peng, K. C. Realization of the Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen paradox for continuous variables. Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3663–3666 (1992).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28

    Zavatta, A., Parigi, V. & Bellini, M. Toward quantum frequency combs: Boosting the generation of highly nonclassical light states by cavity-enhanced parametric down-conversion at high repetition rates. Phys. Rev. A 78, 033809 (2008).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29

    Wieczorek, W., Kiesel, N., Schmid, C. & Weinfurter, H. Multiqubit entanglement engineering via projective measurements. Phys. Rev. A 79, 022311 (2009).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge support for this work from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft Cluster of Excellence Munich-Center for Advanced Photonics (MAP), the European Union project Qubit Applications (QAP) and the Deutscher Akademischer Austausch Dienst/Ministerstwo Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyzszego (DAAD/MNiSW). W.W. acknowledges support by the PhD program Quantum Computing, Control and Communication (QCCC) of the Elite Network of Bavaria and the Studienstiftung des deutschen Volkes.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

All authors contributed significantly to the work presented in this paper.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Roland Krischek.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Supplementary information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Krischek, R., Wieczorek, W., Ozawa, A. et al. Ultraviolet enhancement cavity for ultrafast nonlinear optics and high-rate multiphoton entanglement experiments. Nature Photon 4, 170–173 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2009.286

Download citation

Further reading