Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

A compact free-electron laser for generating coherent radiation in the extreme ultraviolet region

Abstract

Single-pass free-electron lasers based on self-amplified spontaneous emission1,2,3,4 are enabling the generation of laser light at ever shorter wavelengths, including extreme ultraviolet5, soft X-rays and even hard X-rays6,7,8. A typical X-ray free-electron laser is a few kilometres in length and requires an electron-beam energy higher than 10 GeV (refs 6, 8). If such light sources are to become accessible to more researchers, a significant reduction in scale is desirable Here, we report observations of brilliant extreme-ultraviolet radiation from a 55-m-long compact self-amplified spontaneous-emission source, which combines short-period undulators with a high-quality electron source operating at a low acceleration energy of 250 MeV. The radiation power reaches saturation at wavelengths ranging from 51 to 61 nm with a maximum pulse energy of 30 µJ. The ultralow emittance (0.6π mm mrad) of the electron beam from a CeB6 thermionic cathode9 is barely degraded by a multiple-stage bunch compression system that dramatically enhances the beam current from 1 to 300 A. This achievement expands the potential for generating X-ray free-electron laser radiation with a compact 2-GeV machine.

Your institute does not have access to this article

Relevant articles

Open Access articles citing this article.

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

$32.00

All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1: Profile of the electron beam.
Figure 2: Schematic configuration of the SCSS test accelerator.
Figure 3: Pulse energy and fluctuation of the SASE radiation.
Figure 4: Spectra for SASE radiation.

References

  1. Bonifacio, R., Pellegrini, C. & Narducci, L. M. Collective instabilities and high-gain regime in a free-electron laser. Opt. Commun. 50, 373–377 (1984).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Milton, S. V. et al. Exponential gain and saturation of a self-amplified spontaneous emission free-electron laser. Science 292, 2037–2041 (2001).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Ayvazyan, V. et al. Generation of GW radiation pulses from a VUV free-electron laser operating in the femtosecond regime. Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 104802 (2002).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Murokh, A. et al. Properties of the ultrashort gain length, self-amplified spontaneous emission free-electron laser in the linear regime and saturation. Phys. Rev. E 67, 066501 (2003).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Ackermann, W. et al. Operation of a free-electron laser from the extreme ultraviolet to the water window. Nature Photon. 1, 336–342 (2007).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Arthur, J. et al. Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) Conceptual Design Report SLAC-R593 (Stanford, 2002).

  7. Tanaka, T. & Shintake, T. (eds) SCSS X-FEL Conceptual Design Report (RIKEN Harima Institute, Hyogo, Japan, 2005).

    Google Scholar 

  8. Altarelli, M. et al. (eds) XFEL: The European X-ray Free-Electron Laser, technical design report, preprint DESY 2006-097 (DESY, Hamburg, 2006).

    Google Scholar 

  9. Togawa, K. et al. CeB6 electron gun for low-emittance injector. Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 10, 020703 (2007).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Elder, F. R., Gurewitsch, A. M., Langmuir, R. V. & Pollock, H. C. Radiation from electrons in a synchrotron. Phys. Rev. 71, 829–830 (1947).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. LCLS. The First Experiments, SLAC-R611 (Stanford, 2000).

  12. Schlenvoigt, H.-P. et al. A compact synchrotron radiation source driven by a laser-plasma wakefield accelerator. Nature Phys. 4, 130–133 (2008).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Lambert, G. et al. Injection of harmonics generated in gas in a free-electron laser providing intense and coherent extreme-ultraviolet light. Nature Phys. 4, 296–300 (2008).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Kitamura, H. Recent trends of insertion-device technology for X ray sources. J. Synchrotron Rad. 7, 121–130 (2000).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Saldin, E. L., Schneidmiller, E. A. & Yurkov, M. V. The Physics of Free Electron Lasers (Springer, Berlin, 1999).

    Google Scholar 

  16. Reiser, M. Theory and Design of Charged Particle Beams (Wiley, New York, 1994).

    Book  Google Scholar 

  17. Shintake, T., Matsumoto, H., Ishikawa, T. & Kitamura, H. SPring–8 Compact SASE source (SCSS). Proc. SPIE 4500, 12–23 (2001).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Tanaka, H. et al. Low-emittance injector at SCSS. Proc. FEL 2006, 769–776 (2006).

  19. Tanaka, T. FEL simulation code for undulator performance estimation. Proc. FEL 2004, 435–438 (2004).

  20. Bonifacio, R., Salvo De, L., Pierini, P., Piovella, N. & Pellegrini, C. Spectrum, temporal structure and fluctuations in a high-gain free-electron laser starting from noise. Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 70–73 (1994).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Hara, T. et al. Cryogenic permanent magnet undulators. Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 7, 050702 (2004).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Yabashi, M. et al. Photon optics at SCSS. Proc. FEL 2006, 785–792, (2006).

  23. Wang, D. X., Krafft, G. A. & Sinclair, C. K. Measurement of femtosecond electron bunches using a rf zero-phasing method. Phys. Rev. E 57, 2283–2286 (1998).

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors express special thanks to the staff of SPring–8, in particular to T. Hasegawa and S. Tanaka for machine operation, S. Kojima, S. Indo and K. Nakashima for their technical support, H. Tomizawa for his outstanding insights, and H. Suematsu, N. Kumagai and H. Ohno for their continuous encouragement. We also thank H. Matsumoto and H. Baba for developing the C-band accelerator system.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Makina Yabashi, Yujong Kim, Masanobu Kitamura, Kazuyuki Onoe or Tetsuya Takagi.

Supplementary information

Supplementary Information

Supplementary Figures S1–S6 (PDF 206 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Shintake, T., Tanaka, H., Hara, T. et al. A compact free-electron laser for generating coherent radiation in the extreme ultraviolet region. Nature Photon 2, 555–559 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2008.134

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2008.134

Further reading

Search

Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing