Nanoplasmonics deals with collective electronic dynamics on the surface of metal nanostructures, which arises as a result of excitations called surface plasmons. This field, which has recently undergone rapid growth, could benefit applications such as computing and information storage on the nanoscale, the ultrasensitive detection and spectroscopy of physical, chemical and biological nanosized objects, and the development of optoelectronic devices. Because of their broad spectral bandwidth, surface plasmons undergo ultrafast dynamics with timescales as short as a few hundred attoseconds. So far, the spatiotemporal dynamics of optical fields localized on the nanoscale has been hidden from direct access in the real space and time domain. Here, we propose an approach that will, for the first time, provide direct, non-invasive access to the nanoplasmonic collective dynamics, with nanometre-scale spatial resolution and temporal resolution on the order of 100 attoseconds. The method, which combines photoelectron emission microscopy and attosecond streaking spectroscopy, offers a valuable way of probing nanolocalized optical fields that will be interesting both from a fundamental point of view and in light of the existing and potential applications of nanoplasmonics.
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $14.08 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Rent or Buy article
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Paul, P. M. et al. Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation. Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
Hentschel, M. et al. Attosecond metrology. Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
Niikura, H. et al. Sub-laser-cycle electron pulses for probing molecular dynamics. Nature 417, 917–922 (2002).
Drescher, M. et al. Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy. Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
Baltuska, A. et al. Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields. Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
Niikura, H. et al. Probing molecular dynamics with attosecond resolution using correlated wave packet pairs. Nature 421, 826–829 (2003).
Kienberger, R. et al. Atomic transient recorder. Nature 427, 817–821 (2004).
Sekikawa, T., Kosuge, A., Kanai, T. & Watanabe, S. Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet. Nature 432, 605–608 (2004).
Lopez-Martens, R. et al. Amplitude and phase control of attosecond light pulses. Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033001 (2005).
Baker, S. et al. Probing proton dynamics in molecules on an attosecond time scale. Science 312, 424–427 (2006).
Dudovich, N. et al. Measuring and controlling the birth of attosecond XUV pulses. Nature Phys. 2, 781–786 (2006).
Sansone, G. et al. Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses. Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
Kling, M. F. et al. Control of electron localization in molecular dissociation. Science 312, 246–248 (2006).
Stockman, M. I., Faleev, S. V. & Bergman, D. J. Localization versus delocalization of surface plasmons in nanosystems: Can one state have both characteristics? Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 167401 (2001).
Stockman, M. I., Faleev, S. V. & Bergman, D. J. Coherent control of femtosecond energy localization in nanosystems. Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 067402 (2002).
Bergman, D. J. & Stockman, M. I. Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation: Quantum generation of coherent surface plasmons in nanosystems. Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 027402 (2003).
Lehmann, J. et al. Surface plasmon dynamics in silver nanoparticles studied by femtosecond time-resolved photoemission. Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2921–2924 (2000).
Zentgraf, T., Christ, A., Kuhl, J. & Giessen, H. Tailoring the ultrafast dephasing of quasiparticles in metallic photonic crystals. Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 243901 (2004).
Kubo, A. et al. Femtosecond imaging of surface plasmon dynamics in a nanostructured silver film. Nano Lett. 5, 1123–1127 (2005).
Stockman, M. I. & Hewageegana, P. Nanolocalized nonlinear electron photoemission under coherent control. Nano Lett. 5, 2325–2329 (2005).
Brixner, T. et al. Quantum control by ultrafast polarization shaping. Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 208301 (2004).
Brixner, T., d. Abajo, F. J. G., Schneider, J. & Pfeiffer, W. Nanoscopic ultrafast space–time-resolved spectroscopy. Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 093901 (2005).
Sukharev, M. & Seideman, T. Phase and polarization control as a route to plasmonic nanodevices. Nano Lett. 6, 715–719 (2006).
Aeschlimann, M. et al. Adaptive subwavelength control of nano-optical fields. Nature 446, 301–304 (2007).
Pelton, M., Liu, M. Z., Park, S., Scherer, N. F. & Guyot-Sionnest, P. Ultrafast resonant optical scattering from single gold nanorods: Large nonlinearities and plasmon saturation. Phys. Rev. B 73, 155419 (2006).
Corkum, P. B. & Krausz, F. Attosecond science. Nature Phys. 3, 381–387 (2007).
Goulielmakis, E. et al. Direct measurement of light waves. Science 305, 1267–1269 (2004).
Schultze, M. et al. Powerful 170-attosecond XUV pulses generated with few-cycle laser pulses and broadband multilayer optics. New J. Phys. 9, 243 (2007).
Drescher, M. et al. X-ray pulses approaching the attosecond frontier. Science 291, 1923–1927 (2001).
Kupersztych, J., Monchicourt, P. & Raynaud, M. Ponderomotive acceleration of photoelectrons in surface-plasmon-assisted multiphoton photoelectric emission. Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5180–5183 (2001).
Kupersztych, J. & Raynaud, M. Anomalous multiphoton photoelectric effect in ultrashort time scales. Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 147401 (2005).
Johnson, P. B. & Christy, R. W. Optical constants of noble metals. Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
Stockman, M. I., Bergman, D. J. & Kobayashi, T. Coherent control of nanoscale localization of ultrafast optical excitation in nanosystems. Phys. Rev. B 69, 054202–10 (2004).
Nehl, C. L. et al. Scattering spectra of single gold nanoshells. Nano Lett. 4, 2355–2359 (2004).
Goulielmakis, E. et al. Attosecond control and measurement: Lightwave electronics. Science (in the press).
Schnurer, M. et al. Guiding and high-harmonic generation of sub-10-fs pulses in hollow-core fibers at 10(15) w/cm2. Appl. Phys. B 67, 263–266 (1998).
Henke, B. L., Lee, P., Tanaka, T. J., Shimabukuro, R. L. & Fujikawa, B. K. Low-energy X-ray interaction coefficients: Photoabsorption, scattering, and reflection. Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables 27, 1–131 (1982).
Manson, S. T. in Photoemission in Solids Vol. 1, (eds Cardona, M. & Ley, L.) 135–163 (Springer, Berlin, New York, 1978).
Tanuma, S., Powell, C. J. & Penn, D. R. Calculations of electron inelastic mean free paths. ii. Data for 27 elements over the 50–2000 eV range. Surf. Interface Anal. 17, 911–926 (1991).
The work of M.I.S. is supported by grants from the Chemical Sciences, Biosciences and Geosciences Division of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, US Department of Energy, a grant CHE-0507147 from NSF, and a grant from the US-Israel BSF. M.I.S.'s work at the Max-Planck-Institute for Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) was supported by a Research Stipend of the Max Planck Society. The work of M.F.K., U.K., and F.K. was partially supported by the German Science Foundation (DFG) through the Cluster of Excellence Munich Center for Advanced Photonics. M.F.K. acknowledges support by an EU reintegration grant and the DFG Emmy–Noether program. MIS acknowledges helpful discussions with S. Manson regarding photoelectron cross-sections and with P. Corkum regarding charging of the surfaces.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
About this article
Cite this article
Stockman, M., Kling, M., Kleineberg, U. et al. Attosecond nanoplasmonic-field microscope. Nature Photon 1, 539–544 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2007.169
Reviews of Modern Physics (2020)
Chemical Reviews (2020)
Advances in Physics: X (2020)
High-power ytterbium-doped fiber laser delivering few-cycle, carrier-envelope phase-stable 100 µJ pulses at 100 kHz
Optics Letters (2020)