The search for novel tools to control magnetism at the nanoscale is crucial for the development of new paradigms in optics, electronics and spintronics. So far, the fabrication of magnetic nanostructures has been achieved mainly through irreversible structural or chemical modifications. Here, we propose a new concept for creating reconfigurable magnetic nanopatterns by crafting, at the nanoscale, the magnetic anisotropy landscape of a ferromagnetic layer exchange-coupled to an antiferromagnetic layer. By performing localized field cooling with the hot tip of a scanning probe microscope, magnetic structures, with arbitrarily oriented magnetization and tunable unidirectional anisotropy, are reversibly patterned without modifying the film chemistry and topography. This opens unforeseen possibilities for the development of novel metamaterials with finely tuned magnetic properties, such as reconfigurable magneto-plasmonic and magnonic crystals. In this context, we experimentally demonstrate spatially controlled spin wave excitation and propagation in magnetic structures patterned with the proposed method.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Open Access articles citing this article.
Scientific Reports Open Access 21 December 2022
Microsystems & Nanoengineering Open Access 20 October 2021
Subsystem domination influence on magnetization reversal in designed magnetic patterns in ferrimagnetic Tb/Co multilayers
Scientific Reports Open Access 13 January 2021
Subscribe to this journal
Receive 12 print issues and online access
$259.00 per year
only $21.58 per issue
Rent or buy this article
Prices vary by article type
Prices may be subject to local taxes which are calculated during checkout
Schurig, D. et al. Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies. Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
Zheludev, N. I. & Kivshar, Y. S. From metamaterials to metadevices. Nature Mater. 11, 917–924 (2012).
Nikitov, S. A., Tailhades, P. & Tsai, C. S. Spin waves in periodic magnetic structures—magnonic crystals. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 236, 320–330 (2001).
Silva, A. et al. Performing mathematical operations with metamaterials. Science 343, 160–164 (2014).
Temnov, V. V. Ultrafast acousto-magneto-plasmonics. Nature Photon. 6, 728–736 (2012).
Maccaferri, N. et al. Resonant enhancement of magneto-optical activity induced by surface plasmon polariton modes coupling in 2D magnetoplasmonic crystals. ACS Photon. 2, 1769–1779 (2015).
Kobljanskyj, Y. et al. Nano-structured magnetic metamaterial with enhanced nonlinear properties. Sci. Rep. 2, 478 (2012).
Lenk, B., Ulrichs, H., Garbs, F. & Münzenberg, M. The building blocks of magnonics. Phys. Rep. 507, 107–136 (2011).
Chumak, A. V., Vasyuchka, V. I., Serga, A. A. & Hillebrands, B. Magnon spintronics. Nature Phys. 11, 453–461 (2015).
Monticelli, M. et al. On-chip magnetic platform for single-particle manipulation with integrated electrical feedback. Small 12, 921–929 (2016).
Chappert, C. Planar patterned magnetic media obtained by ion irradiation. Science 280, 1919–1922 (1998).
Kim, S. et al. Nanoscale patterning of complex magnetic nanostructures by reduction with low-energy protons. Nature Nanotech. 7, 567–571 (2012).
Ross, C. A. Patterned magnetic recording media. Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 31, 203–235 (2001).
Garcia, R., Knoll, A. W. & Riedo, E. Advanced scanning probe lithography. Nature Nanotech. 9, 577–587 (2014).
Nogués, J. & Schuller, I. K. Exchange bias. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 192, 203–232 (1999).
Szoszkiewicz, R. et al. High-speed, sub-15 nm feature size thermochemical nanolithography. Nano Lett. 7, 1064–1069 (2007).
Wang, D. et al. Thermochemical nanolithography of multifunctional nanotemplates for assembling nano-objects. Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3696–3702 (2009).
Wei, Z. et al. Nanoscale tunable reduction of graphene oxide for graphene electronics. Science 328, 1373–1376 (2010).
Kim, S. et al. Direct fabrication of arbitrary-shaped ferroelectric nanostructures on plastic, glass, and silicon substrates. Adv. Mater. 23, 3786–3790 (2011).
Pires, D. et al. Nanoscale three-dimensional patterning of molecular resists by scanning probes. Science 328, 732–735 (2010).
Fernandez-Outon, L. E., Araújo Filho, M. S., Araújo, R. E., Ardisson, J. D. & Macedo, W. A. A. Setting temperature effect in polycrystalline exchange-biased IrMn/CoFe bilayers. J. Appl. Phys. 113, 17D704 (2013).
Albisetti, E. & Petti, D. Domain wall engineering through exchange bias. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 400, 230–235 (2016).
Algré, E., Gaudin, G., Bsiesy, A. & Nozières, J. Improved patterned media for probe-based HAMR. IEEE Trans. Magn. 41, 2857–2859 (2005).
Miao, L., Stoddart, P. R. & Hsiang, T. Y. Novel aluminum near field transducer and highly integrated micro-nano-optics design for heat-assisted ultra-high-density magnetic recording. Nanotechnology 25, 295202 (2014).
King, W. P., Bhatia, B., Felts, J. R., Kim, H. J. & Kwon, B. Heated atomic force microscope cantilevers and their applications. Annu. Rev. Heat Transf. XVI, 287–326 (2013).
Wu, A. Q. et al. HAMR areal density demonstration of 1 + Tbpsi on spinstand. IEEE Trans. Magn. 49, 779–782 (2013).
Saito, J., Sato, M., Matsumoto, H. & Akasaka, H. Direct overwrite by light power modulation on magneto-optical multi-layered media. Jpn J. Appl. Phys. 26, 155–159 (1987).
Stanciu, C. et al. All-optical magnetic recording with circularly polarized light. Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 047601 (2007).
O'Grady, K., Fernandez-Outon, L. E. & Vallejo-Fernandez, G. A new paradigm for exchange bias in polycrystalline thin films. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 322, 883–899 (2010).
Petti, D. et al. Storing magnetic information in IrMn/MgO/Ta tunnel junctions via field-cooling. Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 192404 (2013).
Marti, X. et al. Room-temperature antiferromagnetic memory resistor. Nature Mater. 13, 367–374 (2014).
Prejbeanu, I. L. et al. Thermally assisted MRAMs: ultimate scalability and logic functionalities. J. Phys. D 46, 074002 (2013).
Papusoi, C. et al. Reversing exchange bias in thermally assisted magnetic random access memory cell by electric current heating pulses. J. Appl. Phys. 104, 013915 (2008).
Camley, R. E. et al. High-frequency signal processing using magnetic layered structures. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 321, 2048–2054 (2009).
Kim, S.-K., Lee, K.-S. & Han, D.-S. A gigahertz-range spin-wave filter composed of width-modulated nanostrip magnonic-crystal waveguides. Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 082507 (2009).
Chumak, A. V., Serga, A. A. & Hillebrands, B. Magnon transistor for all-magnon data processing. Nature Commun. 5, 4700 (2014).
Krawczyk, M. & Grundler, D. Review and prospects of magnonic crystals and devices with reprogrammable band structure. J. Phys. Condens. Matter 26, 123202 (2014).
Csaba, G., Papp, A. & Porod, W. Spin-wave based realization of optical computing primitives. J. Appl. Phys. 115, 17C741 (2014).
Neusser, S. & Grundler, D. Magnonics: spin waves on the nanoscale. Adv. Mater. 21, 2927–2932 (2009).
Gubbiotti, G. et al. Collective spin waves on a nanowire array with step-modulated thickness. J. Phys. D 47, 105003 (2014).
Tacchi, S. et al. Forbidden band gaps in the spin-wave spectrum of a two-dimensional bicomponent magnonic crystal. Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 137202 (2012).
Kalinikos, B. A. Excitation of propagating spin waves in ferromagnetic films. IEE Proc. H 127, 4–10 (1980).
Brächer, T. et al. Generation of propagating backward volume spin waves by phase-sensitive mode conversion in two-dimensional microstructures. Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 2011–2016 (2013).
Vogt, K. et al. Realization of a spin-wave multiplexer. Nature Commun. 5, 3727 (2014).
Urazhdin, S. et al. Nanomagnonic devices based on the spin-transfer torque. Nature Nanotech. 9, 509–513 (2014).
Stancil, D. D. & Prabhakar, A. Spin Waves Theory and Applications (Springer, 2009).
Schneider, T. et al. Realization of spin-wave logic gates. Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 022505 (2008).
Carroll, K. M. et al. Parallelization of thermochemical nanolithography. Nanoscale 6, 1299–1304 (2014).
Nikulina, E., Idigoras, O., Vavassori, P., Chuvilin, A. & Berger, A. Magneto-optical magnetometry of individual 30 nm cobalt nanowires grown by electron beam induced deposition. Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 142401 (2012).
Madami, M., Gubbiotti, G., Tacchi, S. & Carlotti, G. in Solid State Physics Vol. 63 (eds Camley, R. E. & Stamps, R. L.) 79–150 (Academic, 2012).
E.A. thanks K. Carroll, L. Xi and P. Sarti for discussions. M.M. and S.T. thank G. Carlotti for discussions. E.A. and E.R. acknowledge the support of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the US Department of Energy (DE-FG02-06ER46293). E.R. acknowledges partial support from the National Science Foundation (NSF; grant no. CMMI 1436375). E.A. and D.P. acknowledge support from Cariplo project UMANA (project no. 2013-0735). R.B. acknowledges support from Cariplo project MAGISTER (project no. 2013-0726). M.M. and S.T acknowledge support from the Ministero Italiano dell'Università e della Ricerca (MIUR) under the PRIN2010 project (no. 2010ECA8P3). M.P. and P.V. acknowledge support from the Basque Government (program no. PI_2015_1_19) and (M.P.) from the Spanish Ministry of Economy Competitiveness (grant no. BES-2013-063690). J.C. acknowledges partial support from the National Science Foundation (NSF; grant no. PHYS 0848797). This work was partially performed at Polifab, the micro- and nanofabrication facility of Politecnico di Milano.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
About this article
Cite this article
Albisetti, E., Petti, D., Pancaldi, M. et al. Nanopatterning reconfigurable magnetic landscapes via thermally assisted scanning probe lithography. Nature Nanotech 11, 545–551 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2016.25
This article is cited by
Journal of Superconductivity and Novel Magnetism (2023)
Frontiers of Physics (2023)
Nature Reviews Methods Primers (2022)
Scientific Reports (2022)
A Comprehensive Review for Micro/Nanoscale Thermal Mapping Technology Based on Scanning Thermal Microscopy
Journal of Thermal Science (2022)