Letter | Published:

Metallic 1T phase MoS2 nanosheets as supercapacitor electrode materials

Nature Nanotechnology volume 10, pages 313318 (2015) | Download Citation

Abstract

Efficient intercalation of ions in layered materials forms the basis of electrochemical energy storage devices such as batteries and capacitors1,2,3,4,5,6. Recent research has focused on the exfoliation of layered materials and then restacking the two-dimensional exfoliated nanosheets to form electrodes with enhanced electrochemical response7,8,9,10,11. Here, we show that chemically exfoliated nanosheets of MoS2 containing a high concentration of the metallic 1T phase can electrochemically intercalate ions such as H+, Li+, Na+ and K+ with extraordinary efficiency and achieve capacitance values ranging from 400 to 700 F cm−3 in a variety of aqueous electrolytes. We also demonstrate that this material is suitable for high-voltage (3.5 V) operation in non-aqueous organic electrolytes, showing prime volumetric energy and power density values, coulombic efficiencies in excess of 95%, and stability over 5,000 cycles. As we show by X-ray diffraction analysis, these favourable electrochemical properties of 1T MoS2 layers are mainly a result of their hydrophilicity and high electrical conductivity, as well as the ability of the exfoliated layers to dynamically expand and intercalate the various ions.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1.

    & Materials for electrochemical capacitors. Nature Mater. 7, 845–854 (2008).

  2. 2.

    Transition from ‘supercapacitor’ to ‘battery’ behavior in electrochemical energy storage. J. Electrochem. Soc. 138, 1539 (1991).

  3. 3.

    , , , & Conductive two-dimensional titanium carbide ‘clay’ with high volumetric capacitance. Nature 516, 78–81 (2014).

  4. 4.

    , , , & Nano-sized transition-metal oxides as negative-electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Nature 407, 496–499 (2000).

  5. 5.

    et al. Large reversible Li storage of graphene nanosheet families for use in rechargeable lithium ion batteries. Nano Lett. 8, 2277–2282 (2008).

  6. 6.

    et al. Fast ionic diffusion-enabled nanoflake electrode by spontaneous electrochemical pre-intercalation for high-performance supercapacitor. Sci. Rep. 3, 1718 (2013).

  7. 7.

    , , , & Graphene-based ultracapacitors. Nano Lett. 8, 3498–3502 (2008).

  8. 8.

    et al. Cation intercalation and high volumetric capacitance of two-dimensional titanium carbide. Science 341, 1502–1505 (2013).

  9. 9.

    et al. Carbon-based supercapacitors produced by activation of graphene. Science 332, 1537–1541 (2011).

  10. 10.

    et al. Metallic few-layered VS2 ultrathin nanosheets: high two-dimensional conductivity for in-plane supercapacitors. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 17832–17838 (2011).

  11. 11.

    et al. Superior stability and high capacity of restacked molybdenum disulfide as anode material for lithium ion batteries. Chem. Commun. 46, 1106 (2010).

  12. 12.

    et al. Towards ultrahigh volumetric capacitance: graphene derived highly dense but porous carbons for supercapacitors. Sci. Rep. 3, 2975 (2013).

  13. 13.

    , , , & Liquid-mediated dense integration of graphene materials for compact capacitive energy storage. Science 341, 534–537 (2013).

  14. 14.

    & Electrochemical double-layer capacitance of MoS2 nanowall films. Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 10, A250 (2007).

  15. 15.

    et al. Direct laser-patterned micro-supercapacitors from paintable MoS2 films. Small 9, 2905–2910 (2013).

  16. 16.

    et al. Supercapacitor electrodes obtained by directly bonding 2D MoS2 on reduced graphene oxide. Adv. Energy Mater. 4, 1301380 (2014).

  17. 17.

    et al. Synthesis of polyaniline/2-dimensional graphene analog MoS2 composites for high-performance supercapacitor. Electrochim. Acta 109, 587–594 (2013).

  18. 18.

    , , & Enhanced activity of a hydrothermally synthesized mesoporous MoS2 nanostructure for high performance supercapacitor applications. New J. Chem. 38, 2379 (2014).

  19. 19.

    et al. Emerging photoluminescence in monolayer MoS2. Nano Lett. 10, 1271–1275 (2010).

  20. 20.

    et al. Photoluminescence from chemically exfoliated MoS2. Nano Lett. 11, 5111–5116 (2011).

  21. 21.

    & Li intercalation across and along the van der Waals surfaces of MoS2(0001). Surf. Sci. 338, 83–93 (1995).

  22. 22.

    , , & A study of single-layer and restacked MoS2 by X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. J. Phys. C 20, 4043–4053 (1987).

  23. 23.

    & Exfoliated and restacked MoS2 and WS2: ionic or neutral species? encapsulation and ordering of hard electropositive cations. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121, 11720–11732 (1999).

  24. 24.

    et al. Conducting MoS2 nanosheets as catalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction. Nano Lett. 13, 6222–6227 (2013).

  25. 25.

    et al. Graphene and graphene oxide: synthesis, properties, and applications. Adv. Mater. 22, 3906–3924 (2010).

  26. 26.

    , & Synthetic design of crystalline inorganic chalcogenides exhibiting fast-ion conductivity. Nature 426, 428–432 (2003).

  27. 27.

    , , & Graphene-based in-plane micro-supercapacitors with high power and energy densities. Nature Commun. 4, 2487 (2013).

  28. 28.

    & Cation exchange reactions and layer solvate complexes of ternary phases MxMoS2. J. Common Met. 36, 229–236 (1974).

  29. 29.

    , , & Solid-state NMR study of hydrated intercalation compounds of molybdenum disulfide. Chem. Mater. 11, 1742–1746 (1999).

  30. 30.

    Competitive absorption of quaternary ammonium and alkali metal cations into a Nafion cation-exchange membrane. J. Membr. Sci. 215, 103–114 (2003).

Download references

Acknowledgements

M.C. and D.V. acknowledge financial support from the National Science Foundation (NSF DGE 0903661) and the Division of Electrical, Communications and Cyber Systems (1128335). M.A. acknowledges support from the Turkish Ministry of Education.

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Materials Science and Engineering, 607 Taylor Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA

    • Muharrem Acerce
    • , Damien Voiry
    •  & Manish Chhowalla

Authors

  1. Search for Muharrem Acerce in:

  2. Search for Damien Voiry in:

  3. Search for Manish Chhowalla in:

Contributions

M.C. and M.A. conceived the idea and designed the experiments. M.A. synthesized the materials, carried out the electrochemical measurements, performed XRD analyses and assisted D.V. with XPS. D.V. assisted in materials synthesis, and performed Raman, XPS and SEM measurements. M.C. wrote the manuscript with assistance from M.A. and D.V. All authors discussed the results and commented on the manuscript.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Manish Chhowalla.

Supplementary information

PDF files

  1. 1.

    Supplementary information

    Supplementary information

About this article

Publication history

Received

Accepted

Published

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2015.40

Further reading