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Black phosphorus field-effect transistors

Abstract

Two-dimensional crystals have emerged as a class of materials that may impact future electronic technologies. Experimentally identifying and characterizing new functional two-dimensional materials is challenging, but also potentially rewarding. Here, we fabricate field-effect transistors based on few-layer black phosphorus crystals with thickness down to a few nanometres. Reliable transistor performance is achieved at room temperature in samples thinner than 7.5 nm, with drain current modulation on the order of 105 and well-developed current saturation in the IV characteristics. The charge-carrier mobility is found to be thickness-dependent, with the highest values up to 1,000 cm2 V−1 s−1 obtained for a thickness of 10 nm. Our results demonstrate the potential of black phosphorus thin crystals as a new two-dimensional material for applications in nanoelectronic devices.

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Figure 1: Crystal and electronic structure of bulk black phosphorus.
Figure 2: Few-layer phosphorene FET and its device characteristics.
Figure 3: Current saturation and mobility of a few-layer phosphorene FET.
Figure 4: Temperature-dependent behaviour of a few-layer phosphorene FET.

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Acknowledgements

The authors thank R. Tao, F. Wang, Y. Wu, L. Ma, M. Sui, G. Chen and F. Yang for discussions and F. Xiu, Y. Liu and C. Zhang for assistance with measurements in PPMS. Q.G. and D.F. acknowledge support from L. Petaccia, D. Lonza and the ICTP-Elettra Users Support Programme. Part of the sample fabrication was performed at Fudan Nano-fabrication Laboratory. L.L., Y.Y., Q.G., D.F. and Y.Z. acknowledge financial support from the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) under grant nos 2011CB921802, 2012CB921400 and 2013CB921902, and from the NSF of China under grant no. 11034001. G.J.Y. and X.H.C. acknowledge support from the ‘Strategic Priority Research Program’ of the Chinese Academy of Sciences under grant no. XDB04040100 and the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) under grant no. 2012CB922002. X.O. and H.W. are supported by the Pu Jiang Program of Shanghai under grant no. 12PJ1401000.

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X.H.C. and Y.Z. conceived the project. G.J.Y. and X.H.C. grew bulk black phosphorus crystal. L.L. fabricated black phosphorus thin-film devices and performed electric measurements, and L.L., Y.Y. and Y.Z. analysed the data. Q.G. and D.F. carried out ARPES measurements on bulk black phosphorus crystal. X.O. and H.W. performed ab initio band structure calculations. L.L. and Y.Z. wrote the paper and all authors commented on it.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Xian Hui Chen or Yuanbo Zhang.

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The authors declare no competing financial interests.

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Li, L., Yu, Y., Ye, G. et al. Black phosphorus field-effect transistors. Nature Nanotech 9, 372–377 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2014.35

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