Two-dimensional crystals have emerged as a class of materials that may impact future electronic technologies. Experimentally identifying and characterizing new functional two-dimensional materials is challenging, but also potentially rewarding. Here, we fabricate field-effect transistors based on few-layer black phosphorus crystals with thickness down to a few nanometres. Reliable transistor performance is achieved at room temperature in samples thinner than 7.5 nm, with drain current modulation on the order of 105 and well-developed current saturation in the I–V characteristics. The charge-carrier mobility is found to be thickness-dependent, with the highest values up to ∼1,000 cm2 V−1 s−1 obtained for a thickness of ∼10 nm. Our results demonstrate the potential of black phosphorus thin crystals as a new two-dimensional material for applications in nanoelectronic devices.
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The authors thank R. Tao, F. Wang, Y. Wu, L. Ma, M. Sui, G. Chen and F. Yang for discussions and F. Xiu, Y. Liu and C. Zhang for assistance with measurements in PPMS. Q.G. and D.F. acknowledge support from L. Petaccia, D. Lonza and the ICTP-Elettra Users Support Programme. Part of the sample fabrication was performed at Fudan Nano-fabrication Laboratory. L.L., Y.Y., Q.G., D.F. and Y.Z. acknowledge financial support from the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) under grant nos 2011CB921802, 2012CB921400 and 2013CB921902, and from the NSF of China under grant no. 11034001. G.J.Y. and X.H.C. acknowledge support from the ‘Strategic Priority Research Program’ of the Chinese Academy of Sciences under grant no. XDB04040100 and the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) under grant no. 2012CB922002. X.O. and H.W. are supported by the Pu Jiang Program of Shanghai under grant no. 12PJ1401000.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
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Li, L., Yu, Y., Ye, G. et al. Black phosphorus field-effect transistors. Nature Nanotech 9, 372–377 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2014.35
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