Clinical translation of cell therapies requires strategies that can manufacture cells efficiently and economically. One promising way to reproducibly expand T cells for cancer therapy is by attaching the stimuli for T cells onto artificial substrates with high surface area. Here, we show that a carbon nanotube–polymer composite can act as an artificial antigen-presenting cell to efficiently expand the number of T cells isolated from mice. We attach antigens onto bundled carbon nanotubes and combined this complex with polymer nanoparticles containing magnetite and the T-cell growth factor interleukin-2 (IL-2). The number of T cells obtained was comparable to clinical standards using a thousand-fold less soluble IL-2. T cells obtained from this expansion were able to delay tumour growth in a murine model for melanoma. Our results show that this composite is a useful platform for generating large numbers of cytotoxic T cells for cancer immunotherapy.
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This work was supported in part by a National Science Foundation Career Award (0747577) to T.M.F. and in part by a National Institutes of Health Autoimmunity Center of Excellence Pilot Award (U19 AI056363, to T.M.F. and K.H.) and a Yale Specialized Programs of Research Excellence (SPORE) Investigator Pilot Award (to T.M.F.) and in part by the Yale SPORE in Skin Cancer (grant no. 1 P50 CA121974). The authors thank J. Alderman and R. Flavell for helpful critique, and M. Sznol, R. Tigelaar and M. Bosenberg (Yale Cancer Center), as well as P. De Sousa (University of Edinburgh), for technical comments regarding adoptive therapy. The authors also thank P. Van Tassel for technical advice regarding CNT preparation.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
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Fadel, T., Sharp, F., Vudattu, N. et al. A carbon nanotube–polymer composite for T-cell therapy. Nature Nanotech 9, 639–647 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2014.154
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