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Vanadium pentoxide nanoparticles mimic vanadium haloperoxidases and thwart biofilm formation

Abstract

Marine biofouling—the colonization of small marine microorganisms on surfaces that are directly exposed to seawater, such as ships' hulls—is an expensive problem that is currently without an environmentally compatible solution1. Biofouling leads to increased hydrodynamic drag, which, in turn, causes increased fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Tributyltin-free antifouling coatings and paints1,2,3,4 based on metal complexes or biocides have been shown to efficiently prevent marine biofouling. However, these materials can damage5 the environment through metal leaching (for example, of copper and zinc)6 and bacteria resistance7. Here, we show that vanadium pentoxide nanowires act like naturally occurring vanadium haloperoxidases8 to prevent marine biofouling. In the presence of bromide ions and hydrogen peroxide, the nanowires catalyse the oxidation of bromide ions to hypobromous acid (HOBr). Singlet molecular oxygen (1O2) is formed and this exerts strong antibacterial activity, which prevents marine biofouling without being toxic to marine biota. Vanadium pentoxide nanowires have the potential to be an alternative approach to conventional anti-biofouling agents.

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Figure 1: Bactericidal properties of V2O5 nanowires.
Figure 2: TEM image of V2O5 nanowires and concentration dependence of their bromination activity.
Figure 3: Steady-state kinetics of the V2O5 nanowires at pH 8.3.
Figure 4: Representative digital images showing the influence of the catalytic activity of V2O5 nanowires on the growth of Gram-positive (S. aureus) and Gram-negative (E. coli) bacteria.
Figure 5: Application of V2O5 nanowires in paint with antibacterial/antifouling properties.
Figure 6: Effect of nanoparticles on biofouling in situ.

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Acknowledgements

This research was supported by the European community through the project BIOMINTEC (PITN-GA-2008215507) and the BMBF center of Excellence BIOTEC Marin. The authors acknowledge partial support from the Center for Complex Matter (COMATT) at the University of Mainz.

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F.N., R.A. and A.F.H. carried out the experiments. R.W. and W.T. conceived the experiments. B.S. and K.P.J. contributed with the ICP-MS measurements. W.T. wrote the manuscript with contributions from F.N.

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Correspondence to Wolfgang Tremel.

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The authors declare no competing financial interests.

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Natalio, F., André, R., Hartog, A. et al. Vanadium pentoxide nanoparticles mimic vanadium haloperoxidases and thwart biofilm formation. Nature Nanotech 7, 530–535 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2012.91

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