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# On-demand semiconductor single-photon source with near-unity indistinguishability

## Abstract

Single-photon sources based on semiconductor quantum dots offer distinct advantages for quantum information, including a scalable solid-state platform, ultrabrightness and interconnectivity with matter qubits. A key prerequisite for their use in optical quantum computing and solid-state networks is a high level of efficiency and indistinguishability. Pulsed resonance fluorescence has been anticipated as the optimum condition for the deterministic generation of high-quality photons with vanishing effects of dephasing. Here, we generate pulsed single photons on demand from a single, microcavity-embedded quantum dot under s-shell excitation with 3 ps laser pulses. The π pulse-excited resonance-fluorescence photons have less than 0.3% background contribution and a vanishing two-photon emission probability. Non-postselective Hong–Ou–Mandel interference between two successively emitted photons is observed with a visibility of 0.97(2), comparable to trapped atoms and ions. Two single photons are further used to implement a high-fidelity quantum controlled-NOT gate.

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## Acknowledgements

The authors thank Y. Yu, Z. Xi, J. Bowles, K. Chen, C. Matthiesen, X-L. Wang, L-J. Wang, N. Vamivakas and Y. Zhao for helpful discussions. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and the National Fundamental Research Program (grant nos 2011CB921300, 2013CB933300), and the State of Bavaria. M.A. acknowledges the CAS visiting professorship. C-Y.L. acknowledges the Anhui Natural Science Foundation and Youth Qianren Program.

## Author information

Authors

### Contributions

M.A., C-Y.L. and J-W.P. conceived and designed the experiments. C.S., S.H. and M.K. grew and fabricated the sample. Y-M.H., Y.H., Y-J.W., D.W., M.A. and C-Y.L. carried out the optical experiments. Y-M.H., S.H., C-Y.L. and J-W.P. analysed the data. C-Y.L. wrote the manuscript, with input from all authors. S.H., C-Y.L. and J-W.P. guided the project.

### Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Sven Höfling or Chao-Yang Lu or Jian-Wei Pan.

## Ethics declarations

### Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

## Supplementary information

### Supplementary information

Supplementary information (PDF 1260 kb)

## Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

He, YM., He, Y., Wei, YJ. et al. On-demand semiconductor single-photon source with near-unity indistinguishability. Nature Nanotech 8, 213–217 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2012.262

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