We propose a proactive approach to the management of occupational health risks in emerging technologies based on six features: qualitative risk assessment; the ability to adapt strategies and refine requirements; an appropriate level of precaution; global applicability; the ability to elicit voluntary cooperation by companies; and stakeholder involvement.
Your institute does not have access to this article
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $8.25 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Howard, J. & Murashov, V. J. Nanopart. Res. 10.1007/s11051-009-9682-2 (2009).
McGarity, T. O. & Shapiro, S. A. Workers At Risk: The Failed Promise of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (Praeger, 1993).
Shapiro, S. A. & Glicksman, R. L. Risk Regulation at Risk: Restoring a Pragmatic Approach (Stanford Univ. Press, 2003).
US Occupational Safety and Health Act, 29 USC §651–678 (1970).
Framework Directive 89/391/EEC Official Journal L 183, 1–8 (1989).
Occupational Diseases Prevention and Control Act of the People's Republic of China (2001).
Hansen, S. F., Maynard, A., Baun, A. & Tickner, J. A. Nature Nanotech. 3, 444–447 (2008).
Harremoës, P. et al. (eds) Environmental Issue Report No. 22 (European Environmental Agency, 2001); available at http://tinyurl.com/mhngp7.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Approaches to Safe Nanotechnology: Managing the Health and Safety Concerns Associated with Engineered Nanomaterials (NIOSH, 2009); available at http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/nanotech/safenano/.
Morgan, M. G. & Henrion, M. Uncertainty: A Guide to Dealing with Uncertainty in Quantitative Risk and Policy Analysis (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1990).
Krayer von Krauss, M. P., Casman, E. A. & Small, M. J. Risk Anal. 24, 1515–1527 (2004).
Figueira, J., Ehrgott, M. & Ehrgott, G. Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis: State of the Art Surveys (Springer, 2005).
Morgan, K. Risk Anal. 25, 1621–35 (2005).
Paik, S. Y., Zalk, D. M. & Swuste, P. Ann. Occup. Hyg. 52, 419–428 (2008).
Naumann, B. D. et al. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 57, 33–42 (1996).
UK Health and Safety Executive COSHH Essentials http://www.coshh-essentials.org.uk/.
Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Easy-to-use Workplace Control Scheme for Hazardous Substances (BAuA, 2006); available at http://tinyurl.com/n7toqy.
Marquart, H. et al. Ann. Occ. Hyg. 52, 429–441 (2008).
International Labour Organization International Chemical Control Toolkit (ILO, 2006); available at http://tinyurl.com/n2bxll.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Nanotechnology Field Research Effort (NIOSH, 2008); available at http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2008–121/.
Weissinger, R. ISO Focus 4, 36–38 (2007).
Sunstein, C. Laws of Fear: Beyond the Precautionary Principle (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2005).
Report of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Annex I (UN, 1992); available at: http://tinyurl.com/4kdy4.
European Commission On the Precautionary Principle (EC, 2000); available at http://tinyurl.com/mfw299.
Goldstein, B. & Carruth, R. Human Ecol. Risk Assess. 11, 209–219 (2005).
Tickner, J. A., Kriebel, D. & Wright, S. Int. J. Epidemiol. 32, 489–492 (2003).
Hutchison, J. E. ACS Nano 2, 395–402 (2008).
Schulte, P. A., Rinehart, R., Okun, A., Geraci, C. & Heidel, D. S. J. Safety Res. 39, 115–121 (2008).
United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals 2nd edn (UN, 2007); available at http://tinyurl.com/nowjmm.
Marchant, G. E. & Sylvester, D. J. J. Law Med. Ethics 34, 714–725 (2006).
Organization for Economic Co-operation & Development Manufactured Nanomaterials: Work Programme 2006–2008 (OECD, 2008).
Organization for Economic Co-operation & Development Preliminary Analysis of Exposure Measurement and Exposure Mitigation in Occupational Settings: Manufactured Nanomaterials (OECD, 2009); available at http://tinyurl.com/lwafhq.
Murashov, V. et al. J. Nanopart. Res. 10.1007/s11051-009-9637-7 (2009).
International Organization for Standardization Health and Safety Practices in Occupational Settings Relevant to Nanotechnologies ISO/TR-12885 (ISO, 2008).
Murashov, V. & Howard, J. Nature Nanotech. 3, 635–636 (2008).
Linkov, I. & Satterstrom, F. K. in Real-Time and Deliberative Decision Making. (eds Linkov. I. et al.) 129–157 (Springer, 2008).
ETC Group News Release (18 October 2006); available at http://www.etcgroup.org/en/issues/nanotechnology.html.
Monica, J. C. Jr, Heintz, M. E. & Lewis, P. T. Nature Nanotech. 2, 68–70 (2007).
Davies, J. C. Nanotechnology Oversight: An Agenda for the New Administration (Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 2008).
European Commission Regulatory Aspects of Nanomaterials (EC, 2008); available at http://tinyurl.com/mflbnt.
German Chemical Industry Association Responsible Production and Use of Nanomaterials (VCI, 2008); available at http://www.vci.de/.
Marchant, G. E., Sylvester, D. J. & Abbott, K. W. Nanoethics 2, 43–60 (2008).
Goode, B. G. Small Times (September 2007); available at http://tinyurl.com/l8zjcx.
TÜV SÜD Industrie Service GmbH CENARIOS® Certification Standard (TÜV SÜD, 2008); available at http://www.tuev-sued.de/technical_installations/riskmanagement/nanotechnology.
Immediate Measures to Prevent Exposures to Manufactured Nanomaterials in the Workplace (Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, 2008); available at http://tinyurl.com/ksbgr8 (in Japanese).
US Environmental Protection Agency Concept Paper for the Nanoscale Materials Stewardship Program Under TSCA (EPA, 2008); available at http://epa.gov/oppt/nano/stewardship.htm.
US Environmental Protection Agency Risk Management Practices for Nanoscale Materials (EPA, 2007); available at http://tinyurl.com/l2aoz3.
US Environmental Protection Agency Nanoscale Materials Stewardship Program: Interim Report. (EPA, 2009); available at http://tinyurl.com/9wgxmp.
Guidance for Handling and Use of Nanomaterials at the Workplace (BAuA/VCI, 2007); available at http://tinyurl.com/2j9e7u.
International Risk Governance Council Policy Brief: Nanotechnology Risk Governance: Recommendations for a Global, Coordinated Approach to the Governance of Potential Risks (IRGC, 2007); available at http://www.irgc.org/.
The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or the US Department of Health and Human Services.
About this article
Cite this article
Murashov, V., Howard, J. Essential features for proactive risk management. Nature Nanotech 4, 467–470 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2009.205
Development of community of practice to support quantitative risk assessment for synthetic biology products: contaminant bioremediation and invasive carp control as cases
Environment Systems and Decisions (2018)
Nature Nanotechnology (2013)
Nature Nanotechnology (2011)
Recommendations for oversight of nanobiotechnology: dynamic oversight for complex and convergent technology
Journal of Nanoparticle Research (2011)
Nature Nanotechnology (2009)