Parallel patterning of nanoparticles via electrodynamic focusing of charged aerosols


The development of nanodevices that exploit the unique properties of nanoparticles1,2 will require high-speed methods for patterning surfaces with nanoparticles over large areas and with high resolution3,4,5,6. Moreover, the technique will need to work with both conducting and non-conducting surfaces. Here we report an ion-induced parallel-focusing approach that satisfies all requirements. Charged monodisperse aerosol nanoparticles are deposited onto a surface patterned with a photoresist while ions of the same polarity are introduced into the deposition chamber in the presence of an applied electric field. The ions accumulate on the photoresist, modifying the applied field to produce nanoscopic electrostatic lenses that focus the nanoparticles onto the exposed parts of the surface. We have demonstrated that the technique could produce high-resolution patterns at high speed on both conducting (p-type silicon) and non-conducting (silica) surfaces. Moreover, the feature sizes in the nanoparticle patterns were significantly smaller than those in the original photoresist pattern.

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Figure 1: Experimental set-up and scheme for ion-induced parallel-focusing of nanoparticles.
Figure 2: Particle patterning with ion injection.
Figure 3: Control of focusing with an increase of N2 ion flow rate on a substrate with 230-nm-wide and 135-nm-thick PR patterns.
Figure 4: Various focused nanoparticle patterns on a silica surface of 20-nm thickness on a p-type Si wafer.


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This work was funded by Creative Research Initiatives program sponsored by Korea Ministry of Science and Technology. We thank H.C. Lee, S. B. Yoo and K. Jun for assistance. KFM measurements were carried out by K. S. Yoon at Psia.

Author information

H.K., J.K. and M.C. conceived and designed the experiments; H.K., J.K., H.Y., J.S., T.K., B.H., S.K. and D.S.K. performed the experiments; H.K., P.V.P. and M.C. analysed the data. H.K. and J.K. contributed equally to the paper. M.C. and P.V.P. co-wrote the paper.

Correspondence to Mansoo Choi.

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Supplementary methods and figures 1-9 (PDF 3601 kb)

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Kim, H., Kim, J., Yang, H. et al. Parallel patterning of nanoparticles via electrodynamic focusing of charged aerosols. Nature Nanotech 1, 117–121 (2006).

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