Why do some people have superior memory capabilities? We addressed this age-old question by examining individuals renowned for outstanding memory feats in forums such as the World Memory Championships. Using neuropsychological measures, as well as structural and functional brain imaging, we found that superior memory was not driven by exceptional intellectual ability or structural brain differences. Rather, we found that superior memorizers used a spatial learning strategy, engaging brain regions such as the hippocampus that are critical for memory and for spatial memory in particular. These results illustrate how functional neuroimaging might prove valuable in delineating the neural substrates of mnemonic techniques, which could broaden the scope for memory improvement in the general population and the memory-impaired.
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This work was supported by the Wellcome Trust and the University of London Central Research Fund. We thank D. Passingham, U. Noppeney, C. Good, T. Singer, J. Winston and P. Abbott for assistance and advice. We are also grateful for the interest and participation of all the superior memorizers and control volunteers.
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