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Bayesian calibration of simultaneity in tactile temporal order judgment

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Human judgment of the temporal order of two sensory signals is liable to change depending on our prior experiences. Previous studies have reported that signals presented at short intervals but in the same order as the most frequently repeated signal are perceived as occurring simultaneously. Here we report opposite perceptual changes that conform* to a Bayesian integration theory in judging the order of two stimuli delivered one to each hand.

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Figure 1: Two opposing predictions in recalibrating temporal order judgments.
Figure 2: Shifts of the point of simultaneity in judgments of tactile temporal order, favoring the prediction from Bayesian integration.
Figure 3: Shifts of the point of simultaneity in judgments of audiovisual temporal order.

Change history

  • 07 June 2006

    changed confirm to conform


  1. *NOTE: In the version of this article initially published online, the final line of the abstract contained an error. This line should say ‘conform’ rather than ‘confirm’. The error has been corrected for all versions of the article.


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The study was partly supported by the Human Frontier Science Program and Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A) (#15200031, #18200024) to S.K. and by Special Coordination Funds for Promoting Science and Technology to S.Y.

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Authors and Affiliations



M.M. designed and conducted the experiments with tactile stimuli and developed Bayesian models. S.Y. conducted the experiments with audiovisual stimuli. S.U. helped in the experiments with tactile stimuli. S.K. supervised the project and wrote the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Shigeru Kitazawa.

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The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Supplementary information

Supplementary Fig. 1

Bayesian calibration of simultaneity in tactile temporal order judgment under two additional conditions. (PDF 83 kb)

Supplementary Methods (PDF 81 kb)

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Miyazaki, M., Yamamoto, S., Uchida, S. et al. Bayesian calibration of simultaneity in tactile temporal order judgment. Nat Neurosci 9, 875–877 (2006).

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