Conscious awareness, memory and the hippocampus

Abstract

Declarative memory, the conscious recollection of past experiences, is known to involve the hippocampus. Now a study of amnesic patients shows that hippocampus-dependent learning can occur in the absence of conscious awareness.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1: Examples of screen presentations used in blocks of training trials.

References

  1. 1

    Schacter, D. L. & Tulving, E. in Memory Systems 1994 (eds. Schacter, D. L. & Tulving, E.) 269– 310 (MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1994).

  2. 2

    de Biran, M. The Influence of Habit on the Faculty of Thinking, 1929 ed. (Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, 1804).

  3. 3

    Scoville, W. B. & Milner, B. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 20, 11–12 (1957).

  4. 4

    Vargha-Khadem, F. et al. Science 277, 376–380 (1996).

  5. 5

    Zola-Morgan, S. M., Squire, L. R. & Amaral, D. G. J. Neurosci. 6, 2950– 2967 (1986).

  6. 6

    Cohen, N. J. & Squire, L. R. Science 210, 207–210 (1980).

  7. 7

    Graf, P. & Schacter, D. L. J. Exp. Psychol. Learn. Mem. Cogn. 11, 501–518 (1985).

  8. 8

    Knowlton, B. J., Mangels, J. A. &, Squire, L. R. Science, 273, 1399– 1401 (1996).

  9. 9

    Bechera, A. et al. Science 269, 1115– 1118 (1995).

  10. 10

    Gabrieli, J. D., Fleischman, D. A., Keane, M. M., Reminger, S. L. & Morrell, F. Psychol. Sci. 6, 76–82 (1995).

  11. 11

    Chun, M. M. & Phelps, E. A. Nat. Neurosci. 2, 844–847 (1999).

  12. 12

    Clark, R. E. & Squire, L. R. Science 280, 77–81 (1998).

  13. 13

    Eichenbaum, H. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 48, 547–572 (1997).

  14. 14

    Chun, M. M. & Jiang, Y. Cognit. Psychol. 36, 28–71 (1998).

  15. 15

    Moscovitch, M. in Memory Systems 1994 (eds. Schacter, D. L. & Tulving, E.) 269–310 (MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1994).

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Eichenbaum, H. Conscious awareness, memory and the hippocampus. Nat Neurosci 2, 775–776 (1999). https://doi.org/10.1038/12137

Download citation

Further reading