We describe a model of visual processing in which feedback connections from a higher- to a lower-order visual cortical area carry predictions of lower-level neural activities, whereas the feedforward connections carry the residual errors between the predictions and the actual lower-level activities. When exposed to natural images, a hierarchical network of model neurons implementing such a model developed simple-cell-like receptive fields. A subset of neurons responsible for carrying the residual errors showed endstopping and other extra-classical receptive-field effects. These results suggest that rather than being exclusively feedforward phenomena, nonclassical surround effects in the visual cortex may also result from cortico-cortical feedback as a consequence of the visual system using an efficient hierarchical strategy for encoding natural images.
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We thank Christof Koch for comments on the manuscript and Mary Hayhoe, Terrence Sejnowski and members of the Computational Neurobiology Lab at the Salk Institute for discussions. This work was supported by research grants from the National Institute of Health (NIH), the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.
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Rao, R., Ballard, D. Predictive coding in the visual cortex: a functional interpretation of some extra-classical receptive-field effects. Nat Neurosci 2, 79–87 (1999). https://doi.org/10.1038/4580
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