The study of neuroanatomy using imaging enables key insights into how our brains function, are shaped by genes and environment, and change with development, aging and disease. Developments in MRI acquisition, image processing and data modeling have been key to these advances. However, MRI provides an indirect measurement of the biological signals we aim to investigate. Thus, artifacts and key questions of correct interpretation can confound the readouts provided by anatomical MRI. In this review we provide an overview of the methods for measuring macro- and mesoscopic structure and for inferring microstructural properties; we also describe key artifacts and confounds that can lead to incorrect conclusions. Ultimately, we believe that, although methods need to improve and caution is required in interpretation, structural MRI continues to have great promise in furthering our understanding of how the brain works.
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We thank C. Hammill for his assistance in the preparation of Figures 2 and 3, which contain data from The Ontario Brain Institutes' POND grant (to J.P.L.), and we thank L. Wald (Massachusetts General Hospital) for providing the images in Figure 6. Figure 1 contains data from R01MH085772-01A1 (to T.P.).
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
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Lerch, J., van der Kouwe, A., Raznahan, A. et al. Studying neuroanatomy using MRI. Nat Neurosci 20, 314–326 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/nn.4501
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