a, Example neuron with best frequency (BF) close to target tone. Note significant suppression in active context. b, Passive frequency tuning curve for neuron in a (500 ms tones, 70 dB SPL, 0.25 octave spacing). Note peak at target frequency. c, Example neuron where target tone was 0.25 octaves from BF. This neuron selectively responded during the active context. d, Passive frequency tuning curve of neuron in c. e, Activation and suppression for targets and foils. Note significantly higher suppression at BF (target: 82% suppressed; foil: 83% suppressed) vs not BF (target: 58% suppressed; foil: 72% suppressed, p<0.01, Fisher’s exact test). f, Context modulation (y-axis, negative values indicate suppression, positive values indicate activation) as function of BF relative to target tone (in octaves). Suppression is greatest when target tone is BF (BF-target=0, p<0.002 versus not BF). g, as in f but measuring responses to foil tone.