Article | Published:

Psychiatric genome-wide association study analyses implicate neuronal, immune and histone pathways

Nature Neuroscience volume 18, pages 199209 (2015) | Download Citation

  • A Corrigendum to this article was published on 26 May 2015
  • A Corrigendum to this article was published on 25 November 2015

This article has been updated

Abstract

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of psychiatric disorders have identified multiple genetic associations with such disorders, but better methods are needed to derive the underlying biological mechanisms that these signals indicate. We sought to identify biological pathways in GWAS data from over 60,000 participants from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. We developed an analysis framework to rank pathways that requires only summary statistics. We combined this score across disorders to find common pathways across three adult psychiatric disorders: schizophrenia, major depression and bipolar disorder. Histone methylation processes showed the strongest association, and we also found statistically significant evidence for associations with multiple immune and neuronal signaling pathways and with the postsynaptic density. Our study indicates that risk variants for psychiatric disorders aggregate in particular biological pathways and that these pathways are frequently shared between disorders. Our results confirm known mechanisms and suggest several novel insights into the etiology of psychiatric disorders.

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Change history

  • 19 January 2015

    In the version of this article initially published, the affiliation numbers given for several authors were incorrect. Astrid M. Vicente was listed as associated with affiliations 234–236 instead of 233–235, Veronica J. Vieland as 237 instead of 236, Kenneth S. Kendler as 110, 253 and 254 instead of 110, 252 and 253, and Zhaoming Zhao as 255 instead of 254 and 255. The errors have been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article.

  • 28 April 2015

    In the version of this article initially published, the name of author Zhongming Zhao was misspelled Zhaoming Zhao. The error has been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article.

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Acknowledgements

G.B. and S.N. acknowledge funding support for this work from the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Mental Health Biomedical Research Centre at South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust and King's College London. P.H.L. is supported by US National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) grant K99MH101367. The PGC Cross-Disorder Group is supported by NIMH grant U01 MH085520. Statistical analyses were carried out on the Genetic Cluster Computer, which is financially supported by the Netherlands Scientific Organization (NOW; 480-05-003; principal investigator D.P.) along with a supplement from the Dutch Brain Foundation and VU University. Numerous (>100) grants from government agencies along with substantial private and foundation support worldwide enabled the collection of phenotype and genotype data, without which this research would not be possible.

Author information

Author notes

    • Walter J Muir

    Deceased.

    • Colm O'Dushlaine
    • , Lizzy Rossin
    • , Phil H Lee
    • , Peter A Holmans
    •  & Gerome Breen

    These authors contributed equally to this work.

Affiliations

  1. Regeneron Genetics Center, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals Inc., Tarrytown, NY.

    • Colm O'Dushlaine
  2. Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Colm O'Dushlaine
    • , Lizzy Rossin
    • , Laramie Duncan
    • , Stephan Ripke
    • , Benjamin M Neale
    • , Shaun M Purcell
    • , Roy H Perlis
    • , Verneri Anttila
    • , Soumya Raychaudhuri
    •  & Mark J Daly
  3. Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Phil H Lee
    • , Roy H Perlis
    • , Sarah E Bergen
    •  & Jordan W Smoller
  4. Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Laramie Duncan
    • , Stephan Ripke
    • , Benjamin M Neale
    • , Shaun M Purcell
    • , Sarah E Bergen
    • , Kimberly Chambert
    • , Steven A McCarroll
    • , Jennifer L Moran
    • , Soumya Raychaudhuri
    • , Edward Scolnick
    • , Mark J Daly
    •  & Jordan W Smoller
  5. Program in Neurobehavioral Genetics, Semel Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA.

    • Neelroop N Parikshak
  6. Medical Research Council (MRC) Social Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry (SGDP) Centre, King's College London, The Institute of Psychiatry Psychology and Neuroscience, London, UK.

    • Stephen Newhouse
    • , Philip Asherson
    • , David A Collier
    • , Ian W Craig
    • , Anne E Farmer
    • , Jonna Kuntsi
    • , Cathryn M Lewis
    • , Peter McGuffin
    •  & Gerome Breen
  7. National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre for Mental Health, South London and Maudsley NHS Trust and Insitute of Psychiatry, London, UK.

    • Stephen Newhouse
    •  & Gerome Breen
  8. Division of Psychiatric Genomics, Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.

    • Shaun M Purcell
    •  & Douglas Ruderfer
  9. Department of Functional Genomics, VU University, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

    • Danielle Posthuma
  10. Department of Clinical Genetics, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

    • Danielle Posthuma
  11. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

    • Danielle Posthuma
  12. Institute of Psychiatric Research, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.

    • John I Nurnberger
  13. Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.

    • John I Nurnberger
  14. The University of Queensland, Queensland Brain Institute, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

    • S Hong Lee
    • , Bryan J Mowry
    • , Enda M Byrne
    •  & Naomi R Wray
  15. Department of Psychiatry, State University of New York (SUNY) Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, USA.

    • Stephen V Faraone
  16. Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, USA.

    • Stephen V Faraone
  17. Queensland Centre for Mental Health Research, Wacol, Queensland, Australia.

    • Bryan J Mowry
  18. MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Cardiff, UK.

    • Anita Thapar
    • , Christine Fraser
    • , Lyudmila Georgieva
    • , Katherine Gordon-Smith
    • , Detelina Grozeva
    • , Ian Jones
    • , George K Kirov
    • , Valentina Moskvina
    • , Ivan Nikolov
    • , Michael J Owen
    • , Nigel Williams
    • , Stanley Zammit
    • , Michael C O'Donovan
    • , Nicholas Craddock
    •  & Peter A Holmans
  19. Institute of Psychological Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Cardiff, UK.

    • Anita Thapar
    • , Christine Fraser
    • , Lyudmila Georgieva
    • , Ian Jones
    • , George K Kirov
    • , Ivan Nikolov
    • , Michael J Owen
    • , Nigel Williams
    • , Stanley Zammit
    • , Pamela Sklar
    • , Michael C O'Donovan
    •  & Nicholas Craddock
  20. Biosciences Research Division, Department of Environment and Primary Industries Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

    • Michael E Goddard
  21. Faculty of Land and Environment, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

    • Michael E Goddard
  22. Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

    • John S Witte
    • , Tatiana Foroud
    •  & Daniel L Koller
  23. HudsonAlpha Institute of Biotechnology, Huntsville, Alabama, USA.

    • Devin Absher
    •  & Richard M Myers
  24. KG Jebsen Centre for Psychosis Research, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

    • Ingrid Agartz
    • , Ole A Andreassen
    • , Srdjan Djurovic
    • , Morten Mattingsdal
    •  & Ingrid Melle
  25. Department of Research, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

    • Ingrid Agartz
  26. Molecular Psychiatry Laboratory, Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

    • Huda Akil
    • , Fan Meng
    • , Robert C Thompson
    •  & Stanley J Watson
  27. Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

    • Farooq Amin
  28. Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

    • Ole A Andreassen
    •  & Ingrid Melle
  29. Mental Health Sciences Unit, University College London, London, UK.

    • Adebayo Anjorin
    • , Nicholas Bass
    • , Khalid Choudhury
    • , Hugh Gurling
    • , Radhika Kandaswamy
    • , Robert Krasucki
    • , Jacob Lawrence
    • , Andrew McQuillin
    • , Jonathan Pimm
    •  & Vinay Puri
  30. Department of Psychiatry, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

    • Richard Anney
    • , Paul Cormican
    • , Aiden Corvin
    • , Gary J Donohoe
    • , Louise Gallagher
    • , Michael Gill
    • , Elaine Kenny
    • , Derek W Morris
    • , Emma M Quinn
    •  & Peter M Visscher
  31. McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

    • Dan E Arking
    •  & Aravinda Chakravarti
  32. Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.

    • Maria H Azevedo
    •  & Guiomar Oliveira
  33. Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

    • Lena Backlund
    • , Louise Frisén
    • , Urban Osby
    •  & Martin Schalling
  34. Department of Psychiatry, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

    • Judith A Badner
    •  & Elliot S Gershon
  35. Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

    • Anthony J Bailey
  36. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany.

    • Tobias Banaschewski
  37. Department of Psychiatry, Weill Medical College, Cornell University, New York, New York, USA.

    • Jack D Barchas
  38. GlaxoSmithKline, London, UK.

    • Michael R Barnes
  39. Portland Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Portland, Oregon, USA.

    • Thomas B Barrett
  40. Stella Maris Institute for Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Calambrone, Pisa, Italy.

    • Agatino Battaglia
  41. Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital, Dresden, Germany.

    • Michael Bauer
  42. Centro Nacional de Análisis Genómico (CNAG), Parc Científic de Barcelona (PCB), Barcelona, Spain.

    • Mònica Bayés
  43. Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) U955, Psychiatrie Génétique, Créteil, France.

    • Frank Bellivier
    • , Bruno Etain
    • , Stéphane Jamain
    •  & Marion Leboyer
  44. Université Denis Diderot, Paris, France.

    • Frank Bellivier
  45. Assistance Publique–Höpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Groupe Hospitalier Saint-Louis, Lariboisiere, F Widal, Departement de Psychiatrie, Paris, France.

    • Frank Bellivier
  46. ENBREC (European Network of Bipolar Research Expert Centres) Group, Fondation FondaMental, Créteil, France.

    • Frank Bellivier
    • , Bruno Etain
    • , Stéphane Jamain
    •  & Marion Leboyer
  47. Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

    • Sarah E Bergen
    • , Christina M Hultman
    • , Anna K Kähler
    • , Mikael Landén
    • , Niklas Längström
    • , Paul Lichtenstein
    •  & Patrik K E Magnusson
  48. Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

    • Wade Berrettini
    • , Josephine Elia
    •  & Falk W Lohoff
  49. INSERM U952, Paris, France.

    • Catalina Betancur
  50. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) Unité Mixte de Recherche (UMR) 7224, Paris, France.

    • Catalina Betancur
  51. Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France.

    • Catalina Betancur
  52. Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany.

    • Thomas Bettecken
    • , Elisabeth B Binder
    • , Darina Czamara
    • , Florian Holsboer
    • , Marcus Ising
    • , Martin A Kohli
    • , Susanne Lucae
    • , Bertram Müller-Myhsok
    •  & Manfred Uhr
  53. Clinical and Research Programs in Pediatric Psychopharmacology and Adult ADHD, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Joseph Biederman
  54. Department of Psychiatry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA.

    • Donald W Black
    • , William H Coryell
    • , James B Potash
    •  & Thomas H Wassink
  55. Division of Psychiatry, University of Edinburgh, Royal Edinburgh Hospital, Edinburgh, UK.

    • Douglas H R Blackwood
    • , Donald J MacIntyre
    • , Kevin A McGhee
    • , Andrew McIntosh
    • , Alan W McLean
    • , Walter J Muir
    •  & Benjamin S Pickard
  56. The Scripps Translational Science Institute, La Jolla, California, USA.

    • Cinnamon S Bloss
    • , Nicholas J Schork
    •  & Erin N Smith
  57. Scripps Health, La Jolla, California, USA.

    • Cinnamon S Bloss
  58. Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

    • Michael Boehnke
    • , Matthew Flickinger
    • , Weihua Guan
    • , Phoenix Kwan
    • , Laura J Scott
    • , Peng Zhang
    •  & Sebastian Zöllner
  59. Center for Statistical Genetics, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

    • Michael Boehnke
    • , Matthew Flickinger
    • , Weihua Guan
    • , Phoenix Kwan
    • , Laura J Scott
    • , Peng Zhang
    •  & Sebastian Zöllner
  60. Department of Biological Psychology, VU University, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

    • Dorret I Boomsma
    • , Eco J De Geus
    • , Jouke-Jan Hottenga
    • , Christel M Middeldorp
    •  & Gonneke Willemsen
  61. EMGO+ (ExtraMuraalGeneeskundig Onderzoek) Institute for Health and Care Research, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

    • Dorret I Boomsma
    • , Eco J De Geus
    • , Brenda W Penninx
    • , Johannes H Smit
    • , Gerard Van Grootheest
    •  & Gonneke Willemsen
  62. Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

    • Dorret I Boomsma
    • , Eco J De Geus
    • , Jouke-Jan Hottenga
    • , Christel M Middeldorp
    •  & Brenda W Penninx
  63. Department of Genetic Epidemiology in Psychiatry, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany.

    • René Breuer
    • , Josef Frank
    • , Sandra Meier
    • , Marcella Rietschel
    • , Jana Strohmaier
    • , Jens Treutlein
    •  & Stephanie H Witt
  64. Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

    • Richard Bruggeman
  65. School of Nursing, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.

    • Nancy G Buccola
  66. Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

    • Jan K Buitelaar
    •  & Barbara Franke
  67. Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, USA.

    • William E Bunney
  68. Seaver Autism Center for Research and Treatment, Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.

    • Joseph D Buxbaum
  69. Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

    • William F Byerley
    • , Steven P Hamilton
    •  & Lauren A Weiss
  70. NCIRE (Northern California Institute of Q Research and Education), San Francisco, California, USA.

    • William F Byerley
  71. Department of Psychiatry, Birmingham University, Birmingham, UK.

    • Sian Caesar
    • , Katherine Gordon-Smith
    •  & Lisa Jones
  72. Department of Psychiatry, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, University Medical Center, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

    • Wiepke Cahn
    •  & René S Kahn
  73. David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.

    • Rita M Cantor
  74. Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, CIBERSAM (Centro de Investigación Biomédica en el Area de Salud Mental), Barcelona, Spain.

    • Miguel Casas
    • , Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga
    •  & Marta Ribasés
  75. Department of Psychiatry and Legal Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

    • Miguel Casas
    •  & Josep Antoni Ramos-Quiroga
  76. Department of Genomics, Life & Brain Center, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

    • Sven Cichon
    • , Franziska Degenhardt
    • , Stefan Herms
    • , Thomas W Mühleisen
    •  & Markus M Nöthen
  77. Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-1), Research Center Jülich, Jülich, Germany.

    • Sven Cichon
  78. Institute of Human Genetics, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

    • Sven Cichon
    • , Manuel Mattheisen
    • , Franziska Degenhardt
    • , Thomas W Mühleisen
    • , Markus M Nöthen
    • , Peter Propping
    •  & Johannes Schumacher
  79. Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Biomedicine, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

    • Sven Cichon
    •  & Stefan Herms
  80. The Lundbeck Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research, iPSYCH, Roskilde, Denmark.

    • Manuel Mattheisen
    • , Thomas F Hansen
    • , Andrés Ingason
    • , Edward G Jones
    • , Line Olsen
    • , Henrik B Rasmussen
    •  & Thomas Werge
  81. Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

    • Manuel Mattheisen
  82. Department of Genomic Mathematics, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

    • Manuel Mattheisen
  83. Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

    • C Robert Cloninger
    • , Andrew C Heath
    • , Pamela A F Madden
    • , Michele L Pergadia
    •  & Alexandre A Todorov
  84. Department of Psychiatry, Institute for Juvenile Research, University of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

    • Edwin H Cook
  85. Department of Psychiatry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

    • Hilary Coon
    •  & William M McMahon
  86. Departament de Genètica, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

    • Bru Cormand
  87. Biomedical Network Research Centre on Rare Diseases (CIBERER), Barcelona, Spain.

    • Bru Cormand
  88. Institut de Biomedicina de la Universitat de Barcelona (IBUB), Barcelona, Spain.

    • Bru Cormand
  89. The Translational Genomics Research Institute, Phoenix, Arizona, USA.

    • David W Craig
    •  & Szabocls Szelinger
  90. Neurosciences and Mental Health Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    • Jennifer Crosbie
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  91. John P. Hussman Institute for Human Genomics, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA.

    • Michael L Cuccaro
    •  & Margaret A Pericak-Vance
  92. East London NHS Foundation Trust, Queen Mary, University of London, London, UK.

    • David Curtis
  93. Munich Cluster for Systems Neurology (SyNergy), Munich, Germany.

    • Darina Czamara
    •  & Bertram Müller-Myhsok
  94. Genetics Institute, University College London, London, UK.

    • Susmita Datta
  95. Autism Speaks, New York, New York, USA.

    • Geraldine Dawson
  96. Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

    • Geraldine Dawson
  97. Carolina Institute for Developmental Disabilities, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

    • Geraldine Dawson
    •  & Joseph Piven
  98. Division of Neuroscience, Medical Research Institute, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital & Medical School, Dundee, UK.

    • Richard Day
    •  & Keith Matthews
  99. Department of Medical Genetics, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

    • Srdjan Djurovic
  100. Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Alysa E Doyle
  101. Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, NorthShore University Health System and University of Chicago, Evanston, Illinois, USA.

    • Jubao Duan
    • , Pablo V Gejman
    •  & Alan R Sanders
  102. Department of Non-Communicable Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

    • Frank Dudbridge
  103. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, JW Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany.

    • Eftichia Duketis
    • , Christine M Freitag
    •  & Fritz Poustka
  104. Psychology Department, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

    • Richard P Ebstein
  105. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.

    • Howard J Edenberg
  106. AI Dupont Hospital for Children, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

    • Josephine Elia
  107. School of Medicine, Medical Science University College, Dublin, Ireland.

    • Sean Ennis
  108. AP-HP, Höpital H Mondor–A Chenevier, Département de Psychiatrie, Créteil, France.

    • Bruno Etain
    • , Stéphane Jamain
    •  & Marion Leboyer
  109. Department of Psychiatry, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA.

    • Ayman Fanous
  110. Virginia Institute of Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA.

    • Ayman Fanous
    • , Michael C Neale
    •  & Kenneth S Kendler
  111. Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

    • I Nicol Ferrier
    • , Jeremy R Parr
    •  & Allan H Young
  112. Department of Psychiatry, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA.

    • Eric Fombonne
  113. Institute for Development & Disability, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA.

    • Eric Fombonne
  114. Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

    • Robert Freedman
    •  & Ann Olincy
  115. Center for Neurobehavioral Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.

    • Nelson B Freimer
    • , Sandra K Loo
    • , Stan F Nelson
    • , Roel A Ophoff
    •  & Susan L Smalley
  116. Department of Psychiatry, University of Halle, Halle, Germany.

    • Marion Friedl
    • , Ina Giegling
    • , Annette M Hartmann
    • , Bettina Konte
    •  & Dan Rujescu
  117. Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

    • Scott D Gordon
    • , Anjali K Henders
    • , Nicholas G Martin
    • , Sarah E Medland
    • , Grant W Montgomery
    •  & Dale R Nyholt
  118. Department of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, Plymouth University, Plymouth, UK.

    • Elaine K Green
  119. Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.

    • Tiffany A Greenwood
    • , Rebecca McKinney
    • , Caroline M Nievergelt
    • , Paul D Shilling
    •  & John R Kelsoe
  120. Division of Tics, OCD and Related Disorders, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.

    • Dorothy E Grice
  121. Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.

    • Dorothy E Grice
    •  & Jeremy M Silverman
  122. Department of Psychiatry, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

    • Magdalena Gross
    • , Susanne Hoefels
    •  & Wolfgang Maier
  123. Division of Biostatistics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

    • Weihua Guan
  124. Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

    • Lieuwe De Haan
  125. Center for Human Genetics Research, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

    • Jonathan L Haines
  126. The Center for Applied Genomics, Division of Human Genetics, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

    • Hakon Hakonarson
  127. Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

    • Hakon Hakonarson
  128. Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.

    • Joachim Hallmayer
  129. Department of Clinical and Developmental Psychology, Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

    • Marian L Hamshere
    •  & Martin Hautzinger
  130. Institute of Biological Psychiatry, Copenhagen University Hospital, Roskilde, Denmark.

    • Thomas F Hansen
    • , Andrés Ingason
    • , Edward G Jones
    • , Line Olsen
    • , Henrik B Rasmussen
    •  & Thomas Werge
  131. Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

    • Ian B Hickie
  132. Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA.

    • Maria Hipolito
    • , William B Lawson
    •  & Evaristus A Nwulia
  133. Department of Psychiatry, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

    • Witte J Hoogendijk
  134. Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

    • Vanessa Hus
  135. Bioinformatics Research Center, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA.

    • Jung-Ying Tzeng
  136. Department of Psychology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA.

    • Matthew C Keller
  137. Psychiatric Neurogenetics Section, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    • James L Kennedy
  138. School of Medicine, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, UK.

    • Lindsey Kent
  139. Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

    • Yunjung Kim
    •  & Patrick F Sullivan
  140. Division of Molecular Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

    • Sabine M Klauck
  141. Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

    • Lambertus Klei
    •  & Bernie Devlin
  142. Department of Psychiatry, Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

    • James A Knowles
    • , Helena Medeiros
    • , Carlos N Pato
    •  & Michele T Pato
  143. Wolfson Institute of Preventative Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.

    • Ania Korszun
  144. Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, South Limburg Mental Health Research and Teaching Network, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

    • Lydia Krabbendam
    • , Inez Myin-Germeys
    •  & Jim Van Os
  145. Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

    • Mikael Landén
  146. Centre National de Genotypage, Evry, France.

    • Mark Lathrop
  147. Geisinger Health System, Autism and Developmental Medicine Institute, Danville, Pennsylvania, USA.

    • David H Ledbetter
    •  & Christa L Martin
  148. Department of Psychiatry, Division of Research, The Zucker Hillside Hospital Division of the North Shore, Long Island Jewish Health System, Glen Oaks, New York, USA.

    • Todd Lencz
    •  & Anil K Malhotra
  149. Center for Psychiatric Neuroscience, The Feinstein Institute of Medical Research, Manhasset, New York, USA.

    • Todd Lencz
    •  & Anil K Malhotra
  150. Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York, USA.

    • Todd Lencz
    •  & Anil K Malhotra
  151. Division of Molecular Psychiatry, ADHD Clinical Research Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

    • Klaus-Peter Lesch
  152. Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience (MHENS), Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

    • Klaus-Peter Lesch
  153. Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.

    • Douglas F Levinson
  154. Department of Human Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

    • Jun Li
  155. New York State Psychiatric Institute, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA.

    • Jeffrey A Lieberman
    •  & Patrick J McGrath
  156. Department of Biostatistics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

    • Dan-Yu Lin
  157. Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Centre University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

    • Don H Linszen
  158. Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Human Genetics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

    • Chunyu Liu
  159. Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Science, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.

    • Sandra K Loo
    •  & Susan L Smalley
  160. Center for Autism and the Developing Brain, Weill Cornell Medical College, White Plains, New York, USA.

    • Catherine Lord
  161. Department of Neurology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.

    • Jennifer K Lowe
    •  & Daniel H Geschwind
  162. Center for Autism Research and Treatment, Semel Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.

    • Jennifer K Lowe
    •  & Daniel H Geschwind
  163. Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

    • Elena Maestrini
  164. Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

    • Pamela B Mahon
    •  & Thomas G Schulze
  165. Yale Center for Genome Analysis, Orange, Connecticut, USA.

    • Shrikant M Mane
  166. Sørlandet Hospital, Kristiansand, Norway.

    • Morten Mattingsdal
  167. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Semel Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.

    • James J McGough
  168. Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

    • Melvin G McInnis
    • , Peng Zhang
    •  & Sebastian Zöllner
  169. Molecular Medicine Centre, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

    • Andrew McIntosh
    • , Alan W McLean
    • , Walter J Muir
    •  & Benjamin S Pickard
  170. National Institute of Mental Health, US National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

    • Francis J McMahon
  171. Department of Neurobehavioral Genetics, Trier University, Trier, Germany.

    • Jobst Meyer
  172. Neuroepidemiology and Ageing Research, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK.

    • Lefkos Middleton
  173. Department of Psychiatry, First Psychiatric Clinic, Alexander University Hospital, Sofia, Bulgaria.

    • Vihra Milanova
  174. Department of Developmental and Educational Psychology, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

    • Ana Miranda
  175. Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

    • Anthony P Monaco
  176. Office of the President, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Anthony P Monaco
  177. Department of Psychiatry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

    • Daniel Moreno-De-Luca
    • , Stephan J Sanders
    •  & Matthew State
  178. Department of Psychiatry, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim, Norway.

    • Gunnar Morken
  179. Department of Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.

    • Gunnar Morken
  180. Department of Molecular Biology, Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA.

    • Eric M Morrow
  181. Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA.

    • Eric M Morrow
  182. Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Unit, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.

    • Valentina Moskvina
    •  & Peter A Holmans
  183. Neurosciences Centre of Excellence in Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline Research and Development, Verona, Italy.

    • Pierandrea Muglia
    •  & Federica Tozzi
  184. Life & Brain Center, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

    • Thomas W Mühleisen
  185. Child Study Center, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

    • Michael Murtha
    • , Matthew State
    •  & A Jeremy Willsey
  186. Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

    • Vishwajit Nimgaonkar
    •  & Stephan J Sanders
  187. Department of Human Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

    • Vishwajit Nimgaonkar
  188. Department of Psychiatry, Groningen University Medical Center, Groningen, the Netherlands.

    • Willem A Nolen
  189. Clinic for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.

    • Robert D Oades
  190. Research and Clinical Training Department, Pediatric Hospital, Centro Hospitalar e Universitário Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.

    • Guiomar Oliveira
  191. Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

    • Roel A Ophoff
  192. Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge, UK.

    • Aarno Palotie
    •  & Karola Rehnström
  193. Program in Genetics and Genomic Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    • Andrew D Paterson
  194. Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    • Andrew D Paterson
    •  & Wei Xu
  195. Department of Psychiatry, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

    • Brenda W Penninx
    • , Johannes H Smit
    •  & Gerard Van Grootheest
  196. Academic Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

    • Digby J Quested
  197. Department of Psychiatry, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

    • Andreas Reif
  198. Psychiatric Genetics Unit, Vall d'Hebron Research Institute, Barcelona, Spain.

    • Marta Ribasés
  199. Division of Biostatistics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

    • John P Rice
  200. Department of Statistics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

    • Kathryn Roeder
  201. Department of Experimental Clinical & Health Psychology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

    • Herbert Roeyers
    •  & Edmund J S Sonuga-Barke
  202. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University Medicine Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.

    • Aribert Rothenberger
  203. Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

    • Guy Rouleau
  204. Department of Genetics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

    • Stephan J Sanders
    • , Matthew State
    •  & A Jeremy Willsey
  205. Program on Neurogenetics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

    • Stephan J Sanders
  206. Department of Psychiatry, Maine Medical Center, Portland, Maine, USA.

    • Susan L Santangelo
  207. Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Susan L Santangelo
  208. Department of Clinical Neuropsychology, VU University, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

    • Joseph A Sergeant
  209. Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California, USA.

    • Alan F Schatzberg
  210. Rush Ambulatory Behavioral Health, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

    • William A Scheftner
  211. Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

    • Gerard D Schellenberg
  212. The Centre for Applied Genomics, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    • Stephen W Scherer
  213. The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, USA.

    • Nicholas J Schork
    •  & Erin N Smith
  214. Department of Psychiatry & Psychotherapy, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.

    • Thomas G Schulze
  215. Psychiatric Center Nordbaden, Wiesloch, Germany.

    • Markus Schwarz
  216. Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

    • Jianxin Shi
  217. Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

    • Stanley I Shyn
  218. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

    • Susan L Slager
  219. Developmental Brain & Behaviour Laboratory, Academic Unit of Psychology, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.

    • Edmund J S Sonuga-Barke
  220. Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, UK.

    • David St. Clair
  221. Research Department, Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM), Bonn, Germany.

    • Michael Steffens
  222. Research Unit of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark.

    • Hans-Christoph Steinhausen
  223. Clinical Psychology and Epidemiology, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

    • Hans-Christoph Steinhausen
  224. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

    • Hans-Christoph Steinhausen
  225. Molecular Neuropsychiatry and Development Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    • John S Strauss
  226. Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA.

    • T Scott Stroup
    •  & John B Vincent
  227. Vanderbilt Brain Institute, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

    • James S Sutcliffe
  228. Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    • Peter Szatmari
  229. Neurosciences and Mental Health Program, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    • Peter Szatmari
  230. Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    • Peter Szatmari
  231. Oxford Health NHS Foundation Trust, Marlborough House Secure Unit, Milton Keynes, UK.

    • Srinivasa Thirumalai
  232. Center for Biomarker Research and Personalized Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA.

    • Edwin J C G van den Oord
  233. Instituto Nacional de Saude Dr Ricardo Jorge, Lisbon, Portugal.

    • Astrid M Vicente
  234. BioFIG—Center for Biodiversity, Functional and Integrative Genomics, Campus da FCUL, Campo Grande, Lisbon, Portugal.

    • Astrid M Vicente
  235. Instituto Gulbenkian de Cîencia, Lisbon, Portugal.

    • Astrid M Vicente
  236. Battelle Center for Mathematical Medicine, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

    • Veronica J Vieland
  237. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Christopher A Walsh
  238. Division of Genetics, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Christopher A Walsh
  239. Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School Center for Life Sciences, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Christopher A Walsh
  240. Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School Center for Life Sciences, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Christopher A Walsh
  241. Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York, USA.

    • Myrna M Weissman
  242. Faculty of Health and Medical Science, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

    • Thomas Werge
  243. Institute of Medical Biometry, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

    • Thomas F Wienker
  244. Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

    • Ellen M Wijsman
  245. Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

    • Ellen M Wijsman
  246. Centre for Affective Disorders, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, UK.

    • Allan H Young
  247. Division of Genetics, Children's Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Timothy W Yu
  248. Department of Mental Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

    • Peter P Zandi
  249. Department of Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

    • Frans G Zitman
  250. Department of Psychiatry, Special Treatment and Evaluation Program (STEP), Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California, USA.

    • John R Kelsoe
  251. Department of Human and Molecular Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA.

    • Kenneth S Kendler
  252. Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA.

    • Kenneth S Kendler
  253. Department of Biomedical Informatics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

    • Zhongming Zhao
  254. Department of Psychiatry, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

    • Zhongming Zhao

Consortia

  1. The Network and Pathway Analysis Subgroup of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium

    International Inflammatory Bowel Disease Genetics Consortium (IIBDGC)

Authors

    Contributions

    Project conception: G.B., P.F.S., P.A.H. Analysis: C.O'D., P.H.L., P.A.H., G.B., S.R., L.R., L.D., S.N. Writing of the manuscript: G.B., C.O'D. P.A.H., P.H.L., L.R., L.D., N.P. Quality control for PGC data: S. Ripke and B.M.N. Revisions to the manuscript: G.B., D.H.G., C.O'D., L.R., P.H.L., N.P. PGC Network and Pathway Analysis Workgroup: S.R., B.M.N., S.M.P., D.H.G., P.A.H., P.H.L., M.M., C.O'D., D.P., L.R., L.D., P.F.S., J.W.S., N.R.W., Z.Z. PGC Workgroup Chairs: M.J.D. (analysis), S.V.F. (ADHD), M.J.D. and B.D. (co-chairs ASD), G.B. and P.A.H. (Network and Pathway Analysis subgroup), J.K. and P. Sklar (co-chairs bipolar disorder), P.F.S. (major depressive disorder), M.C.O'D. (schizophrenia) and J.W.S. and K.S.K. (co-chairs cross-disorder group). Collection, genotyping and analysis for PGC Working Groups. PGC ADHD Working Group: B.M.N., S.V.F., A.T., R.A., P.A., T. Banaschewski, M. Bayés, J.B., J.K.B., M.C., B.C., J.C., A.E.D., R.P.E., J.E., B.F., C.M.F., L. Kent, J.K., K.-P.L., S.K.L., J.M., J.J.M., S.E.M., J.M.S., A. Miranda, S.F.N., R.D.O., J.A.R.-Q., A. Reif, M. Ribasés, H.R., A. Rothenberger, J.A.S., R.S., S.L. Smalley, E.J.S.S.-B., H.-C.S., A.A.T. and N.W. PGC ASD Working Group: R.A., D.E.A., A.J.B., A.B., C.B., J.D. Buxbaum, A. Chakravarti, E.H.C., H.C., M.L.C., G.D., E.D., S.E., E.F., C.M.F., L. Gallagher, D.H.G., M. Gill, D.E.G., J.L.H., H.H., J.H., V.H., S.M.K., L. Klei, D.H. Ledbetter, C. Lord, J.K.L., E.M., S.M.M., C.L.M., W.M.M., A.P.M., D.M.-D.-L., E.M.M., M. Murtha, G.O., A.P., J.R.P., A.D.P., M.A.P.-V., J. Piven, F.P., K. Rehnström, K. Roeder, G.R., S.J.S., S.L. Santangelo, G.D.S., S.W.S., M. State, J.S. Sutcliffe, P. Szatmari, A.M.V., V.J.V., C.A.W., T.H.W., E.M.W., A.J.W., T.W.Y., B.D. and M.J.D. PGC BPD Working Group: S.M.P., D.A., H.A., O.A.A., A.A., L.B., J.A.B., J.D. Barchas, T.B.B., N.B., M. Bauer, F.B., S.E.B., W.B., D.H.R.B., C.S.B., M. Boehnke, G.B., R. Breuer, W.E.B., W.F.B., S. Caesar, K. Chambert, S. Cichon, D.A.C., A. Corvin, W.H.C., D.W.C., R.D., F. Degenhardt, S. Djurovic, F. Dudbridge, H.J.E., B.E., A.E.F., I.N.F., M. Flickinger, T.F., J.F., C.F., L.F., E.S.G., M. Gill, K.G.-S., E.K.G., T.A.G., D.G., W.G., H.G., M.L.H., M. Hautzinger, S. Herms, M. Hipolito, P.A.H., C.M.H., S.J., E.G.J., I.J., L.J., R. Kandaswamy, J.L.K., G.K.K., D.L.K., P.K., M. Landén, N.L., M. Lathrop, J. Lawrence, W.B.L., M. Leboyer, P.H.L., J. Li, P.L., D.-Y.L., C. Liu, F.W.L., S.L., P.B.M., W.M., N.G.M., M. Mattheisen, K.M., M. Mattingsdal, K.A.M., P.M., M.G.M., A. McIntosh, R.M., A.W.M., F.J.M., A. McQuillin, S.M., I.M., F.M., G.W.M., J.L.M., G.M., D.W.M., V. Moskvina, P.M., T.W.M., W.J.M., B.M.-M., R.M.M., C.M.N., I.N., V.N., M.M.N., J.I.N., E.A.N., C.O., U.O., M.J.O., B.S.P., J.B.P., P.P., E.M.Q., S. Raychaudhuri, A. Reif, J.P.R., M. Rietschel, D. Ruderfer, M. Schalling, A.F.S., W.A.S., N.J.S., T.G.S., J. Schumacher, M. Schwarz, E.S., L.J.S., P.D.S., E.N.S., D.S.C., M. Steffens, J.S. Strauss, J. Strohmaier, S.S., R.C.T., F.T., J.T., J.B.V., S.J.W., T.F.W., S.H.W., W.X., A.H.Y., P.P.Z., P.Z., S. Zöllner, J.R.K., P. Sklar, M.J.D., M.C.O. and N.C. PGC MDD Working Group: M.R.B., T. Bettecken, E.B.B., D.H.R.B., D.I.B., G.B., R. Breuer, S. Cichon, W.H.C., I.W.C., D. Czamara, E.J.D.G., F. Degenhardt, A.E.F., J.F., S.D.G., M. Gross, S.P.H., A.C.H., A.K.H., S. Herms, I.B.H., F.H., W.J.H., S. Hoefels, J.-J.H., M.I., I.J., L.J., J.-Y.T., J.A.K., M.A.K., A.K., W.B.L., D.F.L., C.M.L., D.-Y.L., S.L., D.J.M., P.A.F.M., W.M., N.G.M., M. Mattheisen, P.J.M., P.M., A. McIntosh, A.W.M., C.M.M., L.M., G.W.M., P.M., B.M.-M., W.A.N., M.M.N., D.R.N., B.W.P., M.L.P., J.B.P., M. Rietschel, W.A.S., T.G.S., J. Shi, S.I.S., S.L. Slager, J.H.S., M. Steffens, F.T., J.T., M.U., E.J.C.G.v.d.O., G.V.G., M.M.W., G.W., F.G.Z., P.F.S. and N.R.W. PGC SCZ Working Group: S. Ripke, B.M.N., S.M.P., B.J.M., I.A., F.A., O.A.A., M.H.A., N.B., D.W.B., D.H.R.B., R. Bruggeman, N.G.B., W.F.B., W.C., R.M.C., K. Choudhury, S. Cichon, C.R.C., P.C., A. Corvin, D. Curtis, S. Datta, S. Djurovic, G.J.D., J.D., F. Dudbridge, A.F., R.F., N.B.F., M. Friedl, P.V.G., L. Georgieva, I.G., M. Gill, H.G., L.D.H., M.L.H., T.F.H., A.M.H., P.A.H., C.M.H., A.I., A.K.K., R.S.K., M.C.K., E.K., Y.K., G.K.K., B.K., L. Krabbendam, R. Krasucki, J. Lawrence, P.H.L., T.L., D.F.L., J.A.L., D.-Y.L., D.H. Linszen, P.K.E.M., W.M., A.K.M., M. Mattheisen, M. Mattingsdal, S.M., S.A.M., A. McIntosh, A. McQuillin, H.M., I.M., V. Milanova, D.W.M., V. Moskvina, I.M.-G., M.M.N., C.O., A.O., L.O., R.A.O., M.J.O., C.N.P., M.T.P., B.S.P., J. Pimm, D.P., V.P., D.J.Q., H.B.R., M. Rietschel, L.R., D. Ruderfer, D. Rujescu, A.R.S., T.G.S., J. Shi, J.M.S., D.S.C., T.S.S., S.T., J.V.O., P.M.V., T.W., S. Zammit, P. Sklar, M.J.D., M.C.O., N.C., P.F.S. and K.S.K. PGC Cross-Disorder Group Working Group: S.H.L., S. Ripke, B.M.N., S.M.P., R.H.P., A.T., A.F., M.C.N., J.I.N., B.W.P., M. Rietschel, T.G.S., N.C., S.L. Santangelo, P.F.S., J.W.S., K.S.K. and N.R.W. PGC Analysis Working Group: S.H.L., S. Ripke, B.M.N., S.M.P., V.A., E.M.B., P.H.L., S.E.M., M.C.N., D.P., G.B., M.J.D. and N.R.W.

    Competing interests

    G.B. is a consultant in PreClinical Genetics at Eli Lilly.

    Corresponding authors

    Correspondence to Peter A Holmans or Gerome Breen.

    Integrated supplementary information

    Supplementary information

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    1. 1.

      Supplementary Text and Figures

      Supplementary Figures 1 and 2, Supplementary Analysis, and Supplementary Tables 1–4, 6 and 12–16

    2. 2.

      Supplementary Methods Checklist

    Excel files

    1. 1.

      Supplementary Table 5

      Pathway results for each disease/cross-disease dataset

    2. 2.

      Supplementary Table 7

      Ranked list of pathways when combined across 3 well-powered disease groups.

    3. 3.

      Supplementary Table 8

      Ranked list of pathways when combined across SCZ, HIV and NULL datasets.

    4. 4.

      Supplementary Table 9

      Details related to module-level summaries of spatial, temporal, and cell-type specific expression patterns.

    5. 5.

      Supplementary Table 10

      Ranked list of pathways when combined across all 5 disease groups.

    6. 6.

      Supplementary Table 11

      P values for the SNPs in each gene in each disorder and their pathways membership are presented for all pathways with q < 0.1.

    7. 7.

      Supplementary Table 17

      Information related to the supervised network analysis of 797 genes, specifying gene set membership from the 3 major pathways, module membership, and relative connectivity (kME) to each module.

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      Supplementary Data

      Source data for Figure 3

    Text files

    1. 1.

      Supplementary Software

      PGC pathway network analysis code

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    DOI

    https://doi.org/10.1038/nn.3922

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