Technical Report | Published:

NeuroGrid: recording action potentials from the surface of the brain

Nature Neuroscience volume 18, pages 310315 (2015) | Download Citation

Abstract

Recording from neural networks at the resolution of action potentials is critical for understanding how information is processed in the brain. Here, we address this challenge by developing an organic material–based, ultraconformable, biocompatible and scalable neural interface array (the ‘NeuroGrid’) that can record both local field potentials(LFPs) and action potentials from superficial cortical neurons without penetrating the brain surface. Spikes with features of interneurons and pyramidal cells were simultaneously acquired by multiple neighboring electrodes of the NeuroGrid, allowing for the isolation of putative single neurons in rats. Spiking activity demonstrated consistent phase modulation by ongoing brain oscillations and was stable in recordings exceeding 1 week's duration. We also recorded LFP-modulated spiking activity intraoperatively in patients undergoing epilepsy surgery. The NeuroGrid constitutes an effective method for large-scale, stable recording of neuronal spikes in concert with local population synaptic activity, enhancing comprehension of neural processes across spatiotemporal scales and potentially facilitating diagnosis and therapy for brain disorders.

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported by US National Institutes of Health Grants (NS074015, MH54671, MH102840), the National Science Foundation, the Mathers Foundation and the James S. McDonnell Foundation. The device fabrication was performed at Microelectronic Centre of Provence and the Cornell NanoScale Facility (CNF), a member of the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, which is supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant ECCS-0335765). D.K. is supported through the Simons Foundation (junior fellow). J.G. is supported by the Pediatric Scientist Development Program through a grant from the March of Dimes Foundation. We thank M. Sessolo (University of Valencia), J. Rivnay and M. Ferro (Ecole des Mines), and A. Peyrache and G. Girardeau (NYU Langone Medical Center) for fruitful discussion. We thank M. Skvarla, R. Ilic and M. Metzler from the CNF for their technical support during device fabrication. We thank H. McKellar and A. Boomhaur for managing the institutional review board (IRB) protocol of intraoperative epilepsy patient recordings.

Author information

Affiliations

  1. NYU Neuroscience Institute, School of Medicine, New York University, New York, New York, USA.

    • Dion Khodagholy
    • , Jennifer N Gelinas
    •  & György Buzsáki
  2. Department of Neurology, Comprehensive Epilepsy Center, New York University, New York, New York, USA.

    • Thomas Thesen
    • , Werner Doyle
    •  & Orrin Devinsky
  3. Department of Bioelectronics, Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines, Microelectronics Center of Provence–Saint-Etienne School of Mines (CMP-EMSE), MOC, Gardanne, France.

    • George G Malliaras

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Contributions

D.K., G.G.M. and G.B. conceived the project. D.K. designed, fabricated and characterized the devices. D.K. and J.N.G. did the rodent in vivo experiments. D.K. and J.N.G. analyzed neural data. D.K., J.N.G. and T.T. did the intraoperative patient recordings. W.D. was the attending neurosurgeon and supervised the intra-operative recordings. T.T. and O.D. supervised the epilepsy patient recordings and IRB approval process. D.K., J.N.G. and G.B. wrote the paper with input from the other authors.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to György Buzsáki.

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    Supplementary Text and Figures

    Supplementary Figures 1–5 and Supplementary Table 1

Videos

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    Demonstration of freely moving animal recording using the NeuroGrid.

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DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/nn.3905

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