Noninvasive brain stimulation techniques have been widely used for studying the physiology of the CNS, identifying the functional role of specific brain structures and, more recently, exploring large-scale network dynamics. Here we review key findings that contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the physiological and behavioral effects of these techniques. We highlight recent innovations using noninvasive stimulation to investigate global brain network dynamics and organization. New combinations of these techniques, in conjunction with neuroimaging, will further advance the utility of their application.
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We thank S.-L. Liew for suggestions. This work was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the US National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS; US National Institutes of Health) and by funding from US Department of Defense in the Center for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine to M.S. and E.R.B. N.C. was supported by an NINDS Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
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Dayan, E., Censor, N., Buch, E. et al. Noninvasive brain stimulation: from physiology to network dynamics and back. Nat Neurosci 16, 838–844 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1038/nn.3422
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