Article | Published:

Humans can learn new information during sleep

Nature Neuroscience volume 15, pages 14601465 (2012) | Download Citation

Abstract

During sleep, humans can strengthen previously acquired memories, but whether they can acquire entirely new information remains unknown. The nonverbal nature of the olfactory sniff response, in which pleasant odors drive stronger sniffs and unpleasant odors drive weaker sniffs, allowed us to test learning in humans during sleep. Using partial-reinforcement trace conditioning, we paired pleasant and unpleasant odors with different tones during sleep and then measured the sniff response to tones alone during the same nights' sleep and during ensuing wake. We found that sleeping subjects learned novel associations between tones and odors such that they then sniffed in response to tones alone. Moreover, these newly learned tone-induced sniffs differed according to the odor pleasantness that was previously associated with the tone during sleep. This acquired behavior persisted throughout the night and into ensuing wake, without later awareness of the learning process. Thus, humans learned new information during sleep.

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Acknowledgements

We would like to thank R. Paz for advice. This work was supported by the James S. McDonnell Foundation.

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Department of Neurobiology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.

    • Anat Arzi
    • , Limor Shedlesky
    • , Mor Ben-Shaul
    •  & Noam Sobel
  2. Sleep Disorders Unit, Loewenstein Rehabilitation Hospital, Raanana, Israel.

    • Khitam Nasser
    •  & Arie Oksenberg
  3. School of Behavioral Sciences, Academic College of Tel Aviv - Jaffa, Jaffa, Israel.

    • Ilana S Hairston

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Contributions

A.A. conceived the idea. A.A. and N.S. designed experiments. A.A., L.S. and M.B.-S. carried out the experiments. A.A. analyzed the data. K.N., A.O. and A.A. carried out sleep scoring. A.A., I.S.H., A.O. and N.S. wrote the manuscript.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Anat Arzi.

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DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/nn.3193