The last decade has witnessed enormous growth in the neuroscience of empathy. Here, we survey research in this domain with an eye toward evaluating its strengths and weaknesses. First, we take stock of the notable progress made by early research in characterizing the neural systems supporting two empathic sub-processes: sharing others' internal states and explicitly considering those states. Second, we describe methodological and conceptual pitfalls into which this work has sometimes fallen, which can limit its validity. These include the use of relatively artificial stimuli that differ qualitatively from the social cues people typically encounter and a lack of focus on the relationship between brain activity and social behavior. Finally, we describe current research trends that are overcoming these pitfalls through simple but important adjustments in focus, and the future promise of empathy research if these trends continue and expand.
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Writing of this paper was supported by a Templeton Positive Neuroscience Award (to J.Z.) and National Institute on Drug Abuse Grant 1R01DA022541-01 (to K.O.).
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
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Zaki, J., Ochsner, K. The neuroscience of empathy: progress, pitfalls and promise. Nat Neurosci 15, 675–680 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1038/nn.3085
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