Table 1 Examples of large human microbiome research initiatives.

From: An assessment of US microbiome research

Programme Programme period Programme focus Countries involved
National Institutes of Health (NIH) ‘Human Microbiome Project’ (HMP), phase one23 2007–2012 Develop community resources to support the field: computational tools for sequence-based analyses; experimental methodologies; clinical protocols; microbial genome, whole metagenome and 16S metagenome reference databases; reference microbial culture collection; as well as ethical, legal, social implications of microbiome research. Included research on the microbiomes of five major body regions (skin, oral, nares, gastrointestinal (GI) tract, urogenital) and some associated diseases/disorders. USA
European Commission (EC) ‘Metagenomics of the Human Intestinal Tract’ (MetaHIT) programme24 2008–2012 Research on the GI tract microbiome. China, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, UK
Canadian Microbiome Initiative25 2008–2012 Research on a variety of body region microbiomes. Canada
Irish government ‘Metagenomics of the Elderly’ (ELDERMET) programme26 2008–2013 Research on the elderly GI tract microbiome. Ireland
Six additional human microbiome research initiatives27 2008–2012 Diversity of microbiome studies. Australia, China, France, Japan, Singapore, South Korea
International Human Microbiome Consortium (IHMC)28 2007 to present Establish standards for the field and coordinate international human microbiome research activities. Australia, Canada, China, France, Gambia, Germany, Kazakhstan, Ireland, Japan, South Korea, Spain, USA
NIH HMP, phase two29 2013 to present Develop community resources to support the field: computational tools for omics-based functional data analysis; experimental methodologies; clinical protocols; methods to analyse longitudinal functional data from microbiome and host; also bioinformatics approaches to organization of multiple datatype databases. Research on the nares, GI tract and vaginal microbiomes. USA
EC ‘My New Gut’ programme30 2013–2018 Research on the microbiome's role in energy balance and brain development/function and application to diet-related diseases and behaviour. Austria, Australia, Belgium,Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Serbia, Spain, UK, USA
Irish government Alimentary Pharmacobiotic Center (APC) Microbiome Institute31 2013–2019 Industry–academic partnership to support microbiome research and to develop microbiome-based products. Ireland
French government ‘Metagenopolis’ programme32 2013–2017 Industry–academic ‘Demonstration Project’ to develop microbiome-based therapeutic products for GI diseases. France
Canadian government ‘Environment, Gene and Chronic Disease’ programme33 2016 onwards Diversity of microbiome research. Canada; open to international collaborations
Genome Canada ‘Natural Resources and the Environment: Sector Challenges – Genomic Solutions’ programme34 2016 onwards Diversity of microbiome research. Canada; open to international collaborations
EC ‘Joint Action Intestinal Microbiomics’ programme35 2016 onwards Multidisciplinary trans-national research on the gut microbiome. Canada; open to international collaborations