The following markers were used: FOXJ1 and SNTN for ciliated cells, MUC5AC and SPDEF for goblet cells, TP63 and KRT5 for basal cells, and SCGB1A1 and SCGB3A2 for club cells. The expression of each gene was normalized to that of ACTB. The expression in human fetal trachea was set at 1. Human adult trachea and liver were used as additional controls. Error bars indicate the mean ± s.e.m (n = 3 independent organoids). *P < 0.05 in the comparison of the gene expression of CPMhi cell-derived organoids and CPMhi progenitor cells; # P < 0.05 and ## P < 0.01 in the comparison of the gene expression of organoids derived from CPMhi and CPM- cells. Two-tailed unpaired t- test (df = 4) was performed independently.