Light-induced upregulation of ASCL1 (a), IL1R2 (b), NEUROD1 (c), IL1RN (d) and MYOD1 (e) in HEK293T cells using Split-CPTS2.0, CPTS, LACE, dCas9-VP64 and SAM with a single sgRNA targeting each gene. Data are expressed as relative mRNA amount to the negative control transfected with empty vector in the dark and represented as mean ± s.e.m. ((a–d) n=4 from two individual experiments with two cell culture replicates. (e) n=6 from three individual experiments with two cell culture replicates.). D, Dark; L, Light; ND, Not determined. Welch’s two-tailed t test was performed. *p < 0.05, ** < 0.01, ***p < 0.005 versus the sample in the dark.