(a) Light-induced NEUROD1 upregulation in human iPSCs using indicated dCas9 activators with indicated sgRNAs at day 4. The negative sgRNA targets unrelated DNA sequence. (b) Time-course of NEUROD1 activation in human iPSCs using indicated dCas9 activators. Data are expressed as relative mRNA amount to the negative control transfected with EGFP vector in the dark and are shown as the mean ± s.e.m. (n=3 three cell culture replicates). D, Dark; L, Light; ND, Not determined. Welch’s two-tailed t test was performed. ***p < 0.005 versus the sample in the dark.