We found that photoconversion is fairly common among orange and red fluorescent proteins, as in a screen of 12 proteins, 8 exhibited photoconversion. Specifically, three red fluorescent proteins could be switched to a green state, and two orange variants could be photoconverted to a far-red state. The orange proteins are ideal for dual-probe highlighter applications, and they exhibited the most red-shifted excitation of all fluorescent proteins described to date.
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $20.17 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Rent or Buy article
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Patterson, G.H. & Lippincott-Schwartz, J. Science 297, 1873–1877 (2002).
Chudakov, D.M. et al. Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 1435–1439 (2004).
Gurskaya, N.G. et al. Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 461–465 (2006).
Chudakov, D.M., Lukyanov, S. & Lukyanov, K.A. Nat. Protocols 2, 2024–2032 (2007).
Wiedenmann, J. et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 15905–15910 (2004).
Ando, R., Hama, H., Yamamoto-Hino, M., Mizuno, H. & Miyawaki, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 12651–12656 (2002).
Tsutsui, H., Karasawa, S., Shimizu, H., Nukina, N. & Miyawaki, A. EMBO Rep. 6, 233–238 (2005).
Shcherbo, D. et al. Nat. Methods 4, 741–746 (2007).
Merzlyak, E.M. et al. Nat. Methods 4, 555–557 (2007).
Shaner, N.C. et al. Nat. Methods 5, 545–551 (2008).
Gurskaya, N.G. et al. FEBS Lett. 507, 16–20 (2001).
Shaner, N.C. et al. Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 1567–1572 (2004).
Karasawa, S., Araki, T., Nagai, T., Mizuno, H. & Miyawaki, A. Biochem. J. 381, 307–312 (2004).
Goedhart, J., Vermeer, J.E., Adjobo-Hermans, M.J., van Weeren, L. & Gadella, T.W. Jr. PLoS ONE 2, e1011 (2007).
Dittrich, P.S., Schafer, S.P. & Schwille, P. Biophys. J. 89, 3446–3455 (2005).
Habuchi, S. et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 9511–9516 (2005).
Marchant, J.S., Stutzmann, G.E., Leissring, M.A., LaFerla, F.M. & Parker, I. Nat. Biotechnol. 19, 645–649 (2001).
Habuchi, S. et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 8977–8984 (2005).
Valentin, G. et al. Nat. Methods 2, 801 (2005).
Betzig, E. et al. Science 313, 1642–1645 (2006).
We thank D.M. Chudakov (Shemiakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry,), A. Miyawaki (RIKEN Brain Science Institute) and R.Y. Tsien (University of California at San Diego) for providing plasmids encoding fluorescent protein variants. Measurements were performed in part at the Vanderbilt University Medical Center Cell Imaging Shared Resource (National Institutes of Health grants CA68485, DK20593, DK58404) and at the Quantitative Fluorescence Microcopy course at Mount Desert Island Biological Lab. We thank G. Daniels (Leica), J. Wailes (Zeiss), B. Burklow (Olympus) and S. Schwartz (Nikon) for assistance with their microscopes, and B. Livesay for help with the mVenus experiments. This work was supported by National Institutes of Health grant GM72048 (to D.W.P.).
Supplementary Figures 1-4 and Supplementary Notes 1-2 (PDF 1688 kb)
Optical highlighting with mOrange2 during mitosis. Time-lapse imaging of a HeLa cell expressing H2B-mOrange2 going through mitosis after part of the nucleus was photoconverted during prophase. (MOV 1221 kb)
About this article
Cite this article
Kremers, G., Hazelwood, K., Murphy, C. et al. Photoconversion in orange and red fluorescent proteins. Nat Methods 6, 355–358 (2009) doi:10.1038/nmeth.1319
Scientific Reports (2019)
Intracellular retention of mutant lysyl oxidase leads to aortic dilation in response to increased hemodynamic stress
JCI Insight (2019)
Nature Communications (2019)
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2019)
PLOS Pathogens (2019)