The past decade has witnessed an explosion in the field of quantum materials, headlined by the predictions and discoveries of novel Landau-symmetry-broken phases in correlated electron systems, topological phases in systems with strong spin–orbit coupling, and ultra-manipulable materials platforms based on two-dimensional van der Waals crystals. Discovering pathways to experimentally realize quantum phases of matter and exert control over their properties is a central goal of modern condensed-matter physics, which holds promise for a new generation of electronic/photonic devices with currently inaccessible and likely unimaginable functionalities. In this Review, we describe emerging strategies for selectively perturbing microscopic interaction parameters, which can be used to transform materials into a desired quantum state. Particular emphasis will be placed on recent successes to tailor electronic interaction parameters through the application of intense fields, impulsive electromagnetic stimulation, and nanostructuring or interface engineering. Together these approaches outline a potential roadmap to an era of quantum phenomena on demand.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Open Access articles citing this article.
Embedded metallic nanoparticles facilitate metastability of switchable metallic domains in Mott threshold switches
Nature Communications Open Access 10 August 2022
Dynamical limits for the molecular switching in a photoexcited material revealed by X-ray diffraction
Communications Physics Open Access 29 June 2022
Transient dynamics of a single molecular transistor in the presence of local electron–phonon and electron–electron interactions and quantum dissipation
Scientific Reports Open Access 08 June 2022
Subscribe to Nature+
Get immediate online access to the entire Nature family of 50+ journals
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $9.92 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Subatomic opportunities: Quantum leaps. The Economist (11 March 2017).
Zhang, J. & Averitt, R. D. Dynamics and control in complex transition metal oxides. Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 44, 19–43 (2014).
Basov, D. N., Averitt, R. D., van der Marel, D., Dressel, M. & Haule, K. Electrodynamics of correlated electron materials. Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 471–541 (2011).
Oka, T. & Aoki, H. Photovoltaic Hall effect in graphene. Phys. Rev. B 79, 81406 (2009).
Inoue, J. & Tanaka, A. Photoinduced transition between conventional and topological insulators in two-dimensional electronic systems. Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 017401 (2010).
Lindner, N. H., Refael, G. & Galitski, V. Floquet topological insulator in semiconductor quantum wells. Nat. Phys. 7, 490–495 (2011). This theoretical paper proposed a method to produce a topologically non-trivial electronic state via photoexcitation of semiconductor.
Xiao, D., Chang, M.-C. & Niu, Q. Berry phase effects on electronic properties. Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 1959–2007 (2010).
Nagaosa, N., Sinova, J., Onoda, S., MacDonald, A. H. & Ong, N. P. Anomalous Hall effect. Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 1539–1592 (2010).
Morimoto, T., Zhong, S., Orenstein, J. & Moore, J. E. Semiclassical theory of nonlinear magneto-optical responses with applications to topological Dirac/Weyl semimetals. Phys. Rev. B 94, 245121 (2016).
Mahmood, F. et al. Selective scattering between Floquet–Bloch and Volkov states in a topological insulator. Nat. Phys. 12, 306–310 (2016).
Wang, Y. H., Steinberg, H., Jarillo-Herrero, P. & Gedik, N. Observation of Floquet–Bloch states on the surface of a topological insulator. Science 342, 453–457 (2013).
Badoux, S. et al. Change of carrier density at the pseudogap critical point of a cuprate superconductor. Nature 531, 210–214 (2016).
Schiffrin, A. et al. Optical-field-induced current in dielectrics. Nature 493, 70–74 (2013).
Keimer, B., Kivelson, S. A., Norman, M. R., Uchida, S. & Zaanen, J. From quantum matter to high-temperature superconductivity in copper oxides. Nature 518, 179–186 (2015).
Taillefer, L. Superconductivity and quantum criticality. Phys. Canada 67, 109–112 (2011).
Sebastian, S. E., Harrison, N. & Lonzarich, G. G. Towards resolution of the Fermi surface in underdoped high-Tc superconductors. Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 102501 (2012).
Zhou, Y. & Ramanathan, S. Correlated electron materials and field effect transistors for logic: a review. Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 38, 286–317 (2013).
Inoue, I. H. & Rozenberg, M. J. Taming the Mott transition for a novel Mott transistor. Adv. Funct. Mater. 18, 2289–2292 (2008).
Strukov, D. B., Snider, G. S., Stewart, D. R. & Williams, R. S. The missing memristor found. Nature 453, 80–83 (2008).
Driscoll, T. et al. Memristive adaptive filters. Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 093502 (2010).
Martin, I., Blanter, Ya. M. & Morpurgo, A. F. Topological confinement in bilayer graphene. Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 036804 (2008).
Ye, Z., Sun, D. & Heinz, T. F. Optical manipulation of valley pseudospin. Nat. Phys. 13, 26–29 (2016).
Lumer, Y., Plotnik, Y., Rechtsman, M. C. & Segev, M. Self-localized states in photonic topological insulators. Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 243905 (2013).
Lu, L., Joannopoulos, J. D. & Soljačić, M. Topological photonics. Nat. Photon. 8, 821–829 (2014).
Low, T. et al. Polaritons in layered 2D materials. Nat. Mater. 16, 182–194 (2016).
Qi, X.-L. & Zhang, S.-C. Topological insulators and superconductors. Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 1057–1110 (2011).
Song, J. C. W. & Rudner, M. S. Chiral plasmons without magnetic field. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 113, 4658–4663 (2016).
Morimoto, T. & Nagaosa, N. Topological nature of nonlinear optical effects in solids. Sci. Adv. 2, e1501524 (2016).
Cook, A. M., Fregoso, B. M., De Juan, F., Coh, S. & Moore, J. E. Design principles for shift current photovoltaics. Nat. Commun. 8, 14176 (2017).
Wu, L. et al. Giant anisotropic nonlinear optical response in transition metal monopnictide Weyl semimetals. Nat. Phys. 13, 350–355 (2017).
Ma, Q. et al. Direct optical detection of Weyl fermion chirality in a topological semimetal. Nat. Phys. 13, 842–847 (2017).
Wu, S. et al. Monolayer semiconductor nanocavity lasers with ultralow thresholds. Nature 520, 69–72 (2015).
Tokura, Y., Kawasaki, M. & Nagaosa, N. Emergent functions of quantum materials. Nat. Phys. http://doi.org/10.1038/nphys4274 (2017).
Drozdov, A. P., Eremets, M. I., Troyan, I. A., Ksenofontov, V. & Shylin, S. I. Conventional superconductivity at 203 kelvin at high pressures in the sulfur hydride system. Nature 525, 73–76 (2015).
Zhong, D. et al. Van der Waals engineering of ferromagnetic semiconductor heterostructures for spin and valleytronics. Sci. Adv. 3, e1603113 (2017).
Efetov, D. K. et al. Specular interband Andreev reflections at van der Waals interfaces between graphene and NbSe2 . Nat. Phys. 12, 328–332 (2016).
Levy, N. et al. Strain-induced pseudo-magnetic fields greater than 300 tesla in graphene nanobubbles. Science 329, 544–547 (2010).
Novoselov, K. S., Mishchenko, A., Carvalho, A. & Castro Neto, A. H. 2D materials and van der Waals heterostructures. Science 353, aac9439 (2016).
Kumar, R. K. et al. Super-ballistic flow of viscous electron fluid through graphene constrictions. Nat. Phys. http://doi.org/10.1038/nphys4240 (2017).
Chakhalian, J., Freeland, J. W., Millis, A. J., Panagopoulos, C. & Rondinelli, J. M. Colloquium: Emergent properties in plane view: Strong correlations at oxide interfaces. Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 1189–1202 (2014).
Kim, T. H. et al. Polar metals by geometric design. Nature 533, 68–72 (2016).
Gerber, S. et al. Three-dimensional charge density wave order in YBa2Cu3O6.67 at high magnetic fields. Science 350, 949–952 (2015).
Chan, M. K. et al. Single reconstructed Fermi surface pocket in an underdoped single-layer cuprate superconductor. Nat. Commun. 7, 12244 (2016).
Kampfrath, T., Tanaka, K. & Nelson, K. A. Resonant and nonresonant control over matter and light by intense terahertz transients. Nat. Photon. 7, 680–690 (2013).
Liu, M. et al. Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial. Nature 487, 345–348 (2012).
Rajasekaran, S. et al. Parametric amplification of a superconducting plasma wave. Nat. Phys. 12, 1012–1016 (2016).
Steinleitner, P. et al. Direct observation of ultrafast exciton formation in a monolayer of WSe2 . Nano Lett. 17, 1455–1460 (2017).
Oka, T. Nonlinear doublon production in a Mott insulator: Landau–Dykhne method applied to an integrable model. Phys. Rev. B. 86, 075148 (2012).
Mayer, B. et al. Tunneling breakdown of a strongly correlated insulating state in VO2 induced by intense multiterahertz excitation. Phys. Rev. B 91, 235113 (2015).
Kirilyuk, A., Kimel, A. V & Rasing, T. Ultrafast optical manipulation of magnetic order. Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 2731–2784 (2010).
Matsukura, F., Tokura, Y. & Ohno, H. Control of magnetism by electric fields. Nat. Nanotech. 10, 209–220 (2015).
Först, M. et al. Nonlinear phononics as an ultrafast route to lattice control. Nat. Phys. 7, 854–856 (2011).
Subedi, A., Cavalleri, A. & Georges, A. Theory of nonlinear phononics for coherent light control of solids. Phys. Rev. B 89, 220301 (2014).
Stojchevska, L. et al. Ultrafast switching to a stable hidden quantum state in an electronic crystal. Science 344, 177–180 (2014).
Kiryukhin, V. et al. An X-ray-induced insulator–metal transition in a magnetoresistive manganite. Nature 386, 813–815 (1997). Discovery of persistent metallic state in manganites induced by illumination with X-rays.
Jingdi Zhang et. al. et al. Cooperative photoinduced metastable phase control in strained manganite films. Nat. Mater. 15, 956–960 (2016).
Basov, D. N., Fogler, M. M. & García de Abajo, F. J. Polaritons in van der Waals materials. Science 354, aag1992 (2016).
Rivera, N., Kaminer, I., Zhen, B., Joannopoulos, J. D. & Soljačić, M. Shrinking light to allow forbidden transitions on the atomic scale. Science 353, 263–269 (2016).
Flick, J. et al. Atoms and molecules in cavities, from weak to strong coupling in quantum-electrodynamics (QED) chemistry. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 12, 3026–3034 (2017).
Mentink, J. H., Balzer, K. & Eckstein, M. Ultrafast and reversible control of the exchange interaction in Mott insulators. Nat. Commun. 6, 6708 (2015).
Wang, Y., Claassen, M., Moritz, B. & Devereaux, T. P. Producing coherent excitations in pumped Mott antiferromagnetic insulators. Preprint at http://arxiv.org/abs/1706.06228v1 (2017).
Dehghani, H. & Mitra, A. Optical Hall conductivity of a Floquet topological insulator. Phys. Rev. B 92, 165111 (2015).
Iadecola, T., Neupert, T. & Chamon, C. Occupation of topological Floquet bands in open systems. Phys. Rev. B 91, 235133 (2015).
Seetharam, K. I., Bardyn, C.-E., Lindner, N. H., Rudner, M. S. & Refael, G. Controlled population of Floquet–Bloch states via coupling to Bose and Fermi baths. Phys. Rev. X 5, 041050 (2015).
De Giovannini, U., Hübener, H. & Rubio, A. Monitoring electron–photon dressing in WSe2 . Nano Lett. 16, 7993–7998 (2016). This article offers the most detailed description the formation of quasistatic electronic structure under periodic electromagnetic excitation.
Schmitt, F. et al. Transient electronic structure and melting of a charge density wave in TbTe3 . Science 321, 1649–1652 (2008).
Gerber, S. et al. Femtosecond electron-phonon lock-in by photoemission and x-ray free-electron laser. Science 357, 71–75 (2017). The authors succeeded to synchronize for the first time transient photoemission and transient X-ray studies by locking into a coherent phonon mode.
Xu, X., Yao, W., Xiao, D. & Heinz, T. F. Spin and pseudospins in layered transition metal dichalcogenides. Nat. Phys. 10, 343–350 (2014). Excellent review article discussing valley control of electronic and optical phenomena in TMD compounds.
Eckardt, A. & Anisimovas, E. High-frequency approximation for periodically driven quantum systems from a Floquet-space perspective. New J. Phys. 17, 093039 (2015).
Rüegg, C. et al. Bose–Einstein condensation of the triplet states in the magnetic insulator TlCuCl3 . Nature 423, 62–65 (2003).
Eisenstein, J. P. & Macdonald, A. H. Bose–Einstein condensation of excitons in bilayer electron systems. Nature 432, 691–694 (2004).
Byrnes, T., Kim, N. Y. & Yamamoto, Y. Exciton–polariton condensates. Nat. Phys. 10, 803–813 (2014).
Nagamatsu, J., Nakagawa, N., Muranaka, T., Zenitani, Y. & Akimitsu, J. Superconductivity at 39 K in magnesium diboride. Nature 410, 63–64 (2001).
Johnston, D. C. The puzzle of high temperature superconductivity in layered iron pnictides and chalcogenides. Adv. Phys. 59, 803–1061 (2010).
Basov, D. N. & Chubukov, A. V. Manifesto for a higher Tc . Nat. Phys. 7, 272–276 (2011).
Graf, J. et al. Nodal quasiparticle meltdown in ultrahigh-resolution pump-probe angle-resolved photoemission. Nat. Phys. 7, 805–809 (2011).
Cilento, F. et al. In search for the pairing glue in cuprates by non-equilibrium optical spectroscopy. J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 449, 012003 (2013).
Goldman, N., Budich, J. C. & Zoller, P. Topological quantum matter with ultracold gases in optical lattices. Nat. Phys. 12, 639–645 (2016).
He, S. et al. Phase diagram and electronic indication of high-temperature superconductivity at 65 K in single-layer FeSe films. Nat. Mater. 12, 605–610 (2013).
Lee, J. J. et al. Interfacial mode coupling as the origin of the enhancement of Tc in FeSe films on SrTiO3 . Nature 515, 245–248 (2014).
Shiogai, J., Ito, Y., Mitsuhashi, T., Nojima, T. & Tsukazaki, A. Electric-field-induced superconductivity in electrochemically etched ultrathin FeSe films on SrTiO3 and MgO. Nat. Phys. 12, 42–46 (2015).
Lei, B. et al. Evolution of high-temperature superconductivity from a low-Tc phase tuned by carrier concentration in FeSe thin flakes. Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 077002 (2016).
Saito, Y. et al. Superconductivity protected by spin–valley locking in ion-gated MoS2 . Nat. Phys. 12, 144–149 (2016).
Li, L. J. et al. Controlling many-body states by the electric-field effect in a two-dimensional material. Nature 529, 185–189 (2015).
Bollinger, A. T. et al. Superconductor–insulator transition in La2−xSrxCuO4 at the pair quantum resistance. Nature 472, 458–460 (2011).
Sherman, D. et al. The Higgs mode in disordered superconductors close to a quantum phase transition. Nat. Phys. 11, 188–192 (2015).
Matsunaga, R. et al. Light-induced collective pseudospin precession resonating with Higgs mode in a superconductor. Science 345, 1145–1149 (2014).
Nikuni, T., Oshikawa, M., Oosawa, A. & Tanaka, H. Bose–Einstein condensation of dilute magnons in TlCuCl3 . Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5868–5871 (2000).
Giamarchi, T., Rüegg, C. & Tchernyshyov, O. Bose–Einstein condensation in magnetic insulators. Nat. Phys. 4, 198–204 (2008).
Jaime, M. et al. Magnetic-field-induced condensation of triplons in Han purple pigment BaCuSi2O6 . Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 087203 (2004).
Sebastian, S. E. et al. Dimensional reduction at a quantum critical point. Nature 441, 617–620 (2006).
Kimura, S. et al. Ferroelectricity by Bose–Einstein condensation in a quantum magnet. Nat. Commun. 7, 12822 (2016).
Demokritov, S. O. et al. Bose–Einstein condensation of quasi-equilibrium magnons at room temperature under pumping. Nature 443, 430–433 (2006).
Bozhko, D. A. et al. Supercurrent in a room-temperature Bose-Einstein magnon condensate. Nat. Phys. 12, 1057–1062 (2016).
Li, J. I. A., Taniguchi, T., Watanabe, K., Hone, J. & Dean, C. R. Excitonic superfluid phase in double bilayer graphene. Nat. Phys. 13, 751–755 (2016).
Nandi, D., Finck, A. D. K., Eisenstein, J. P., Pfeiffer, L. N. & West, K. W. Exciton condensation and perfect Coulomb drag. Nature 488, 481–484 (2012).
Fogler, M. M., Butov, L. V & Novoselov, K. S. High-temperature superfluidity with indirect excitons in van der Waals heterostructures. Nat. Commun. 5, 4555 (2014).
Wu, F.-C., Xue, F. & MacDonald, A. H. Theory of two-dimensional spatially indirect equilibrium exciton condensates. Phys. Rev. B 92, 165121 (2015).
Sun, Y. et al. Bose–Einstein condensation of long-lifetime polaritons in thermal equilibrium. Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 016602 (2017).
Cotleţ, O., Zeytinoğlu, S., Sigrist, M., Demler, E. & Imamoğlu, A. Superconductivity and other collective phenomena in a hybrid Bose–Fermi mixture formed by a polariton condensate and an electron system in two dimensions. Phys. Rev. B 93, 054510 (2016).
McLeod, A. S. et al. Nanotextured phase coexistence in the correlated insulator V2O3 . Nat. Phys. 13, 80–86 (2016). This paper shows that the insulator-to-metal transition in correlated oxides is associated with the phase separation at nano- and mesoscales.
Ma, E. Y. et al. Mobile metallic domain walls in an all-in-all-out magnetic insulator. Science 350, 538–541 (2015).
Mitrano, M. et al. Possible light-induced superconductivity in K3C60 at high temperature. Nature 530, 461–464 (2016). This work is the latest result from the group of A. Cavalleri on transient enhancement of superconducting pairing in unconventional superconductors.
Kennes, D. M., Wilner, E. Y., Reichman, D. R. & Millis, A. J. Transient superconductivity from electronic squeezing of optically pumped phonons. Nat. Phys. 13, 479–483 (2017).
Spivak, B. & Kivelson, S. A. Transport in two dimensional electronic micro-emulsions. J. Phys. IV France 131, 255–256 (2005).
Yamaura, J. et al. Tetrahedral Magnetic Order and the Metal-Insulator Transition in the Pyrochlore Lattice of Cd2Os2O7 . Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 247205 (2012).
Yamaji, Y. & Imada, M. Metallic interface emerging at magnetic domain wall of antiferromagnetic insulator: fate of extinct Weyl electrons. Phys. Rev. X 4, 021035 (2014).
Yamaji, Y. & Imada, M. Modulated helical metals at magnetic domain walls of pyrochlore iridium oxides. Phys. Rev. B 93, 195146 (2016).
Nakamura, F. et al. Electric-field-induced metal maintained by current of the Mott insulator Ca2RuO4 . Sci. Rep. 3, 2536 (2013).
Liu, M. K. et al. Photoinduced phase transitions by time-resolved far-infrared spectroscopy in V2O3 . Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 066403 (2011).
Kübler, C. et al. Coherent structural dynamics and electronic correlations during an ultrafast insulator-to-metal phase transition in VO2 . Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 116401 (2007).
Rini, M. et al. Control of the electronic phase of a manganite by mode-selective vibrational excitation. Nature 449, 72–74 (2007).
Beaud, P. et al. A time-dependent order parameter for ultrafast photoinduced phase transitions. Nat. Mater. 13, 923–927 (2014).
Morrison, V. R. et al. A photoinduced metal-like phase of monoclinic VO2 revealed by ultrafast electron diffraction. Science 346, 445–448 (2014).
Han, T.-R. T. et al. Exploration of metastability and hidden phases in correlated electron crystals visualized by femtosecond optical doping and electron crystallography. Sci. Adv. 1, e1400173 (2015).
Beaud, P. et al. Ultrafast structural phase transition driven by photoinduced melting of charge and orbital order. Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 155702 (2009).
Nova, T. F. et al. An effective magnetic field from optically driven phonons. Nat. Phys. 13, 132–136 (2017).
Mankowsky, R. et al. Nonlinear lattice dynamics as a basis for enhanced superconductivity in YBa2Cu3O6.5 . Nature 516, 71–73 (2014).
Babadi, M., Knap, M., Martin, I., Refael, G. & Demler, E. Theory of parametrically amplified electron–phonon superconductivity. Phys. Rev. B 96, 014512 (2017).
Wegkamp, D. et al. Instantaneous band gap collapse in photoexcited monoclinic VO2 due to photocarrier doping. Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 216401 (2014).
Popmintchev, T., Chen, M.-C., Arpin, P., Murnane, M. M. & Kapteyn, H. C. The attosecond nonlinear optics of bright coherent X-ray generation. Nat. Photon. 4, 822–832 (2010).
Rybka, T. et al. Sub-cycle optical phase control of nanotunnelling in the single-electron regime. Nat. Photon. 10, 667–670 (2016).
Moore, J. E. The birth of topological insulators A primer on topological insulators. Nature 464, 194–198 (2010).
Jia, S., Xu, S.-Y. & Hasan, M. Z. Weyl semimetals, Fermi arcs and chiral anomalies. Nat. Mater. 15, 1140–1144 (2016).
Yan, B. & Felser, C. Topological materials: Weyl semimetals. Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys 8, 337–354 (2017).
Hasan, M. Z. & Kane, C. L. Colloquium: Topological insulators. Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 3045–3067 (2010).
Beenakker, C. & Kouwenhoven, L. A road to reality with topological superconductors. Nat. Phys. 12, 618–621 (2016).
Beenakker, C. W. J. Search for Majorana fermions in superconductors. Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys 4, 113–136 (2013).
Kitagawa, T., Oka, T., Brataas, A., Fu, L. & Demler, E. Transport properties of nonequilibrium systems under the application of light: Photoinduced quantum Hall insulators without Landau levels. Phys. Rev. B 84, 235108 (2011).
Lindner, N. H., Bergman, D. L., Refael, G. & Galitski, V. Topological Floquet spectrum in three dimensions via a two-photon resonance. Phys. Rev. B 87, 235131 (2013).
Qian, X., Liu, J., Fu, L. & Li, J. Quantum spin Hall effect in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides. Science 346, 1344–1347 (2014).
Fei, Z. et al. Edge conduction in monolayer WTe2 . Nat. Phys. 13, 677–682 (2017).
Tang, S. et al. Quantum spin Hall state in monolayer 1T′-WTe2 . Nat. Phys. 13, 683–687 (2017).
Yu, R. et al. Quantized anomalous Hall effect in magnetic topological insulators. Science 329, 61–64 (2010).
Chang, C.-Z. et al. Experimental observation of the quantum anomalous Hall effect in a magnetic topological insulator. Science 340, 167–170 (2013).
Ju, L. et al. Topological valley transport at bilayer graphene domain walls. Nature 520, 650–655 (2015).
Sie, E. J. et al. Valley-selective optical Stark effect in monolayer WS2 . Nat. Mater. 14, 290–294 (2015).
Xu, S.-Y. et al. Topological phase transition and texture inversion in a tunable topological insulator. Science 332, 560–564 (2011).
Moll, P. J. W. et al. Transport evidence for Fermi-arc-mediated chirality transfer in the Dirac semimetal Cd3As2 . Nature 535, 266–270 (2016).
Hirschberger, M. et al. SI: The chiral anomaly and thermopower of Weyl fermions in the half-Heusler GdPtBi. Nat. Mater. 15, 1161–1165 (2016).
Wan, X., Turner, A., Vishwanath, A. & Savrasov, S. Y. Electronic structure of pyrochlore iridates: From topological Dirac metal to Mott insulator. Phys. Rev. B 83, 205101 (2011).
Xu, G., Weng, H., Wang, Z., Dai, X. & Fang, Z. Chern semimetal and the quantized anomalous Hall effect in HgCr2Se4 . Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 186806 (2011).
Chang, G. et al. Room-temperature magnetic topological Weyl fermion and nodal line semimetal states in half-metallic Heusler Co2TiX (X=Si, Ge, or Sn). Sci. Rep. 6, 38839 (2016).
Wang, Z. et al. Time-reversal-breaking Weyl fermions in magnetic Heusler alloys. Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 236401 (2016).
Hübener, H., Sentef, M. A., De Giovannini, U., Kemper, A. F. & Rubio, A. Creating stable Floquet–Weyl semimetals by laser-driving of 3D Dirac materials. Nat. Commun. 8, 13940 (2017).
Sentef, M. A. et al. Theory of Floquet band formation and local pseudospin textures in pump-probe photoemission of graphene. Nat. Commun. 6, 7047 (2015).
Benito, M., Gómez-León, A., Bastidas, V. M., Brandes, T. & Platero, G. Floquet engineering of long-range p-wave superconductivity. Phys. Rev. B 90, 205127 (2014).
Zhang, X.-X., Ong, T. T. & Nagaosa, N. Theory of photoinduced Floquet Weyl semimetal phases. Phys. Rev. B 94, 235137 (2016).
Claassen, M., Jiang, H.-C., Moritz, B. & Devereaux, T. P. Dynamical time-reversal symmetry breaking and photo-induced chiral spin liquids in frustrated Mott insulators. Preprint at http://arxiv.org/abs/1611.07964 (2016).
Kumar, A. et al. Chiral plasmon in gapped Dirac systems. Phys. Rev. B 93, 041413 (2016).
Karzig, T., Bardyn, C.-E., Lindner, N. H. & Refael, G. Topological polaritons. Phys. Rev. X 5, 031001 (2015).
Giannetti, C. et al. Ultrafast optical spectroscopy of strongly correlated materials and high-temperature superconductors: a non-equilibrium approach. Adv. Phys. 65, 58–238 (2016).
Wang, H. et al. Bright high-repetition-rate source of narrowband extreme-ultraviolet harmonics beyond 22 eV. Nat. Commun. 6, 7459 (2015).
Elsaesser, T. & Woerner, M. Perspective: Structural dynamics in condensed matter mapped by femtosecond x-ray diffraction. J. Chem. Phys. 140, 020901 (2014).
Zhao, L. et al. Evidence of an odd-parity hidden order in a spin-orbit coupled correlated iridate. Nat. Phys. 12, 32–36 (2015).
Zhao, L. et al. A global inversion-symmetry-broken phase inside the pseudogap region of YBa2Cu3Oy . Nat. Phys. 13, 250–254 (2017).
Harter, J., Zhao, Z. Y., Yan, J.-Q., Mandrus, D. G. & Hsieh, D. A parity-breaking electronic nematic phase transition in the spin-orbit coupled metal Cd2Re2O7 . Science 356, 295–299 (2017).
Bowlan, P. et al. Probing and controlling terahertz-driven structural dynamics with surface sensitivity. Optica 4, 383–387 (2017).
Dean, M. P. M. et al. Ultrafast energy- and momentum-resolved dynamics of magnetic correlations in the photo-doped Mott insulator Sr2IrO4 . Nat. Mater. 15, 601–605 (2016).
Abreu, E. et al. Dynamic conductivity scaling in photoexcited V2O3 thin films. Phys. Rev. B 92, 085130 (2015).
Ni, G. X. et al. Ultrafast optical switching of infrared plasmon polaritons in high-mobility graphene. Nat. Photon. 10, 244–247 (2016).
Dönges, S. A. et al. Ultrafast nanoimaging of the photoinduced phase transition dynamics in VO2 . Nano Lett. 16, 3029–3035 (2016).
Eisele, M. et al. Ultrafast multi-terahertz nano-spectroscopy with sub-cycle temporal resolution. Nat. Photon. 8, 841–845 (2014).
Weiner, A. Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929–1960 (2000).
Yusupov, R. et al. Coherent dynamics of macroscopic electronic order through a symmetry breaking transition. Nat. Phys. 6, 681–684 (2010).
Martin, I., Refael, G. & Halperin, B. Topological frequency conversion in strongly driven quantum systems. Preprint at http://arxiv.org/abs/1612.02143v1 (2016).
Cundiff, S. T. & Mukamel, S. Optical multidimensional coherent spectroscopy. Phys. Today 66, 44–49 (July, 2013).
Riek, C. et al. Direct sampling of electric-field vacuum fluctuations. Science 350, 420–423 (2015).
Antonius, G. & Louie, S. G. Temperature-induced topological phase transitions: promoted versus suppressed nontrivial topology. Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 246401 (2016).
Aoki, H. et al. Nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory and its applications. Rev. Mod. Phys. 86, 779–837 (2014).
Das Sarma, S., Freedman, M. & Nayak, C. Majorana zero modes and topological quantum computation. npj Quant. Inf. 1, 15001 (2015).
Bradlyn, B. et al. Beyond Dirac and Weyl fermions: Unconventional quasiparticles in conventional crystals. Science 353, aaf5037 (2016).
Zhang, J. et al. Observation of a discrete time crystal. Nature 543, 217–220 (2017).
Choi, S. et al. Observation of discrete time-crystalline order in a disordered dipolar many-body system. Nature 543, 221–225 (2017).
Research at Columbia is supported by DE-FG02-00ER45799 (fundamental physics of graphene), NSF DMR1609096 (high-Tc superconductivity), ARO-W911NF-17-1-0543 (correlated oxides), AFOSR FA9550-15-1-0478 (van der Waals heterostructures), ONR N00014-15-1-2671 (graphene-based devices) and NSF-EFRI EFMA 1741660 (topological effects in graphene). D.N.B. is the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation's EPiQS Initiative Investigator through Grant GBMF4533. Additionally, research at Columbia and UCSD is supported by DE-SC0018218 (ultrafast electrodynamics of superconductors) and DE-SC0012375 (ultrafast dynamics of oxides). Research at Caltech is supported by ARO W911NF-17-1-0204 (hidden order in correlated materials), DOE DE-SC0010533 (topological superconductors). D.H. acknowledges support from the David and Lucile Packard Foundation and the Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, an NSF Physics Frontier Center (PHY-1125565) with support of the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (GBMF1250). Additionally, research at Caltech and UCSD is supported by ARO W911NF-16-1-0361 (Floquet engineering and metastable states).
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
About this article
Cite this article
Basov, D., Averitt, R. & Hsieh, D. Towards properties on demand in quantum materials. Nature Mater 16, 1077–1088 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/nmat5017
This article is cited by
The Ising triangular-lattice antiferromagnet neodymium heptatantalate as a quantum spin liquid candidate
Nature Materials (2022)
Nature Reviews Physics (2022)
Macro- and atomic-scale observations of a one-dimensional heterojunction in a nickel and palladium nanowire complex
Nature Communications (2022)
Nature Reviews Methods Primers (2022)
Dynamical limits for the molecular switching in a photoexcited material revealed by X-ray diffraction
Communications Physics (2022)